Asking “why” questions ○ Closed-ended questions/comments ○ Changing the subject ○ False reassurance ○ Giving advice ○ Giving stereotypical or generalized responses ○ Showing approval or disapproval ○ Showing agreement or disagreement ○ Engaging in excessive self-disclosure or comparing the experiences of others ○ Comparing pt experiences ○ Using personal terms of endearment ○ Being defensive Ch 4: CRITICAL THINKING IN NURSING ● Critical thinking - application of knowledge and experience to identify pt problems & to direct clinical judgments & actions that result in positive pt outcomes ○ Reflection - deliberate thinking used to guide further thinking ■ Ways to improve ○ Evidence - gained through research & review of findings ○ Standards - guide to which practice is assessed & evaluated ○ Attributes - fairness, responsibility, empathy ● Clinical reasoning - uses critical thinking , knowledge, & experience to develop solutions to problems & make decisions in clinical setting ○ Skill that develops over time w/increased knowledge & expertise ● Problem solving - systematic, analytic approach to finding a solution to a problem ● Decision making - choosing a solution from different options ● Reasoning - logical thinking that links thoughts, ideas, & facts together in a meaningful way ● Judgement - result or decision related to processes of thinking & reasoning ● Inductive reasoning - uses specific facts or details to make conclusions & generalizations ○ Specific → General
● Deductive reasoning - generating facts or details from a major theory, generalization, or premise ○ General → Specific ● Validation - the process of gathering info to determine whether the info/data collected are factual & true ○ Subjective data usually validated w/objective data ● Thinking errors to avoid: ○ Bias - an inclination or tendency to favoritism or partiality ○ Illogical thinking ○ Lack of info ○ Closed-mindedness ○ Erroneous assumptions ● Methods for improving critical thinking skills: ○ Discussion w/colleagues ○ Audible verbalization of thoughts ○ Literature review ○ Intentional application of knowledge ○ Concept maps ○ Simulation ○ Role playing ○ Written work Pp 498-499: PPE GUIDELINES ● Standard Precautions ○ Used when contact/potential contact with: ■ Blood & bodily fluids ■ Secretions & excretions ■ Nonintact skin ■ Mucous membranes ■ Other infectious materials ● If splashing possible: eyewear, mask, gown ● Contact: gloves & gown ● Airborne: gloves & N95 mask ○ Negative-pressure w/HEPA filtration system ● Droplet: gloves & mask ● Isolation: gloves, mask ○ Positive-pressure room w/HEPA filtration system ○ Mask for anyone entering or leaving room ○ Meticulous hand-washing ○ No live plants, fresh flowers, fresh raw fruit or vegetables, sushi, or blue cheese Ch 19: VITAL SIGNS ● Pulse oximetry - measures the amount of O2 available to tissues ● Core temperature - temperature of deep tissues ● Frostbite - exposure to subnormal temp → ice crystals form inside cells → permanent circulatory & tissue damage
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- Fall '16
- Nursing, Nursing Interventions, pt assessment data, specific pt problem