deaths men aged 20 years in the ACLS 10 years of follow up Attributable

Deaths men aged 20 years in the acls 10 years of

This preview shows page 51 - 61 out of 66 pages.

deaths) men aged ≥20 years in the ACLS. 10 years of follow-up. Attributable fractions are adjusted for age, examination year, BMI, parental history of CVD, and each other item in the table. Wei M. et al., JAMA, 1999
Image of page 51
Relative Risks (RR) and Attributable Fractions (AF) of All-Cause Mortality by BMI Categories in Men Normal Overweight Obese RR (95% CI) AF, % RR (95% CI) AF, % RR (95% CI) AF, % Baseline CVD 2.3 (1.8-2.9) 19 2.0 (1.6-2.4) 19 2.4 (1.7-3.5) 27 Diabetes 1.3 (0.9-1.8) 2 1.6 (1.3-2.0) 6 1.5 (1.1-2.2) 9 High cholesterol 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 0 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 8 1.7 (1.2-2.3) 18 Hypertension 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 12 1.4 (1.2-1.7) 13 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 4 Current smoker 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 7 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 9 1.5 (1.0-2.1) 9 Low fitness 1.6 (1.3-2.1) 10 1.7 (1.4-2.0) 18 2.3 (1.5-3.4) 44 Wei M. et al., JAMA, 1999
Image of page 52
Summary Indicators of obesity and physical inactivity are predictors of morbidity and mortality Cardiorespiratory fitness is an objective marker of habitual physical activity Adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness dramatically attenuates or eliminates associations of obesity markers and most health outcomes
Image of page 53
2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans At-A-Glance U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Image of page 54
55 Physical Activity Guidelines For all individuals, some activity is better than none. More is better. For fitness benefits, aerobic activity should be episodes of at least 10 minutes. Physical activity is safe for almost everyone. The health benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks.
Image of page 55
56 Key Guidelines – Adults (ages 18–64) Minimum levels a week 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) moderate-intensity aerobic activity; or 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) vigorous-intensity aerobic activity; or An equal combination Muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups should be performed on 2 or more days of the week.
Image of page 56
57 Key Guidelines – Adults (ages 18–64) (cont.) For additional health benefits 5 hours (300 minutes) moderate- intensity aerobic activity a week; or 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) vigorous-intensity aerobic activity a week; or An equivalent combination
Image of page 57
Overview Medical care costs in the U.S are ~17% of GNP, by far the highest in the world By traditional public health markers such as longevity, chronic disease rates, infant mortality, etc; the U.S. ranks far behind many other countries Most health problems are the result of unhealthy lifestyles We must be more aggressive in integrating lifestyle interventions into medical practice and public health programs
Image of page 58
How to Promote Healthful Lifestyles Relatively new area of research Application of theories, models, & methods from behavioral science Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model (Motivational Readiness), etc Helping individuals use cognitive and behavioral strategies to implement behavioral change
Image of page 59
Lessons Learned from Physical Activity Intervention Studies Individuals who use cognitive and behavioral strategies are more likely to be active at 24 months than individuals who do not use these strategies Approximately 25-30% of initially sedentary persons who participate in Active Living will be meeting consensus public health guidelines for physical activity at 24 months
Image of page 60
Image of page 61

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 66 pages?

  • Spring '16
  • Ali

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors