Came to symbolize hope for a reunified islamic empire

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Came to symbolize hope for a reunified Islamic empire o New crusade against the Ottomans 1444 to drive the Ottomans back across the Dardanelles Failed because of the loyalty of the Serbian Christian rulers to the Ottoman sultan 1453; the Ottomans put an end to the Byzantine Empire, capturing Constantinople became known as Istanbul o Islamic Law Ottomans enforced Islamic Law but at the same time they retained the right to issue their own laws for matters not yet developed in Islamic courts Shariah was side by side with Ottoman law ( Kanun ) Development of laws for administrative, commercial, and other areas of vital concern to the government Non-muslim religious communities were given autonomy o Stability and Prosperity Ottoman architecture Lightness and spaciousness Reign of Suleiman Further expansion
17 th century: decline Persia: The Safavid Empire Second great Islamic empire of the middle period o The Safavids Descendants of a religious order who were able to oust the Mongols Sufi order that originated in Turkic Azerbaijan in the 14 th century “Red Heads” Based their legitimacy on the main branch of shii Islam o Shii Islam Free to develop its unique character Difference between the two branches of Islam lies in their respective theories of government and its relationship to prophecy The death of the prophet marked the end of prophecy, but not the end of prophetic guidance. Divinely inspired guidance continues through the family of Prophet Muhammad His descendants were the only legitimate successors to the Prophet’s earthly leadership o Sunni Islam The death of the prophet marked the end of prophecy and the beginning of human beings’ responsibility to find ways to implement the Quran’s demand for justice, inspired by the Prophet’s example o Karbala in Iraq Major site pilgrimage for Shiis o Safavid Persia Peace provided by political equilibrium allowed for prosperity and cultural productivity Efficient state administration headquartered in Isfahan Sha Abbas Made Isfahan his capital and set about beautifying it with parks and fountains Mosques: Shah Abbas and Lotfallah o Inspire spirituality even in unbelievers Influential in shaping the culture of the third great center of Islamic life in the middle period, Mughal India India and the rise of the Mughals Ghaznavid empire o Mahmud (son of Ghazna) Gained control across present-day Pakistan Raids particularly on Hindu temples brought him wealth Intolerant of other religions Turkic background and anti-Shii religiously, established Persian as the language of culture o Timur (d. 1405) Considered the Delhi sultans’ policy of religious freedom to be unconscionable Religious freedom was not an essential feature of Islam o Lodi sultans Late 14 th century, reconstituted Islamic power in Delhi From the highlands of Afghanistan Mughal Empire In India, begun by Babur (d.1503)

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