PH100 Lecture Notes

• “you are like a single neuron in the brain and

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Unformatted text preview: • “You are like a single neuron in the brain, and just as such a single neuron by itself cannot understand but only contributes to the understanding of the whole system, you don't understand, but the whole system does” (29). • SEARLE'S RESPONSE: Memorize the rule book and do all the symbol manipulations inside your mind. Do you understand Chinese now? Searle: No. September 18, 2012 SUMMARY: Searle: Q: “Could a machine think or understand?” • Depends on what we mean by machine. If human beings are taken to be machines, then machines can think. Q: “Could an artifact think or understand? Could a human-made machine think or understand?” • If you could produce a machine with a brain similar to ours, then yes. Q: “Could a digital computer think or understand just by virtue of implementing a program?” • Digital computers (automatic formal systems) cannot think. • Even if they pass the Turing test, we should not conclude that they think • At best, digital computers can simulate thinking. • But if digital computers cannot think, then minds cannot be computers: thinking cannot be the implementation of a certain program. Chinese Room Argument: 1. Computers are formal systems (syntactic) 2. Human minds have mental contents (semantics) 3. Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics 4. Programs are either constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics 5. Strong AI is false. The Mind – Body Problem What is the relationship between mind and body? What is the relationship between mind and brain? What is the relationship between mind and world? What is the nature of the mind? Dualism • The mind and the body – or the mind and the brain – are two radically different kinds of being. • Bifurcation of human existence • We have a body and a mind ◦ body - in time and space; composed of matter; situated in a common field, mechanically connected to other bodies ◦ mind – in time but not in space; not composed of matter; isolated, no direct connection between other minds • Two types ◦ Substance dualism ▪ There are two kinds of substances/entities in the world – physical and mental ▪ Stronger position ◦ Property dualism ▪ There are two kinds of properties in the world – physical and mental. Nonetheless, they are properties of the same kinds of entities (ex. physical objects, but they somehow have mental properties) ◦ ex) pin cushion ▪ substance = cushion ▪ properties = pins ▪ Substance may be characterized by its properties, but it is more than it s properties: it is also that which has those properties What is the relationship between mind and body? Dualism • Parallelism ◦ No causal interaction between mind and brain; they only appear to be casually connected ◦ Mind and brain are pre-programmed to work in unison ◦ Physical realm & mental realm • Epiphenomenalism ◦ Physical can cause the mental, but the mental can't cause the physical ◦ Ex) Touch stove → C-fiber stimulation → more neurons fire → Physical realm...
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• “You are like a single neuron in the brain and just...

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