Sociocultural – The behavior is based largely on the persons cultural and societal backgrounds. Research in psychology o Scientific method – Theory, use theory to make a prediction, design experiment to test prediction, perform the experiment, create or modify the theory. This is a cycle that never ends, constantly editing and testing theories. o Problems in generalizing from psychological research. Can’t test entire populations, use statistics and research to generalize certain groups or conditions and the population as a whole. o Sampling – Generalizations might not always be a valid measure. Random sampling – randomly pulling from the population, more likely to represent entire population. Stratified Sampling – Best ways of getting a representative sample. o Methods of observation Case study – A lot of information about very few people, really small sample. Rare conditions are mainly observed by case studies. It’s not representative. Generalizing is a big issue with case studies. Surveys – A lot of information from a lot of people, a lot more generalizable. Surveys can be biased = volunteer bias. Naturalistic – Look at people in their natural environment, concern is seeing how people naturally behave. Hard to tell if one stimulus is causing different responses. Bad for cause and effect. o Experimental method – Best to figure out cause and effect. Experimental and control groups – Control group gives biased responses, no manipulation, record natural responses. Experimental group is exposed to the manipulation, give pure responses, observe responses to the manipulation. IV and DV Independent variable = manipulated Dependent variable = measure change in behavior, response
Blind and double-blind studies Blind = when participant doesn’t know what group they’re in. Double-blind = participant and researcher doesn’t know what group they’re in. Trusted most when dealing with cause and effect. Ethics o With humans IRB – Institutional Review Board = outline code of ethics and hold researchers accountable. Three requirements o Confidentiality – no one outside of the experiment knows who participated or their performance. o Informed Consent – Can only use participants who chose to be in the study, enough information to let them decide if they want to participate. o Debriefing – Telling people after the study the purpose of the study and checking for any harm or damage. o With animals Three questions that need to be answered Can the research be done with humans? Can the research be done without harming the animals? Do the benefits justify any harm done? Chapter 2: Biology and Psychology Nervous system o Neurons- specialized cells of the nervous system that conduct impulses. Nerve Cells Parts and their functions Soma – the body of a neuron, contains the nucleus Nucleus – brain of the neuron, the command center, when to send signal etc.
- Spring '12
- axon terminal, Overt