Dreams are just thinking without the rich sensory input of waking life to

Dreams are just thinking without the rich sensory

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Dreams are just thinking without the rich sensory input of waking life to direct it As when awake, our brains construct ‘reasonable’ simulations of the world Similar activity explains similar brain wave patterns as when awake - Activation-Synthesis Model Dreams are a by-product of random activity in the brainstem pons during REM
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Activity involves neurons involved in eye movements, balance, posture, and transfer of info to sensory and motor areas Brain tries to make sense of the random activity from pons Pons sends random signals to many parts of cortex during sleep *pros and cons of each model are illustrated in the textbook Hypnosis - “A procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the participant” (pg.161) - Hypnotic Induction Suggest relaxation, sleepiness Soothing voice Ask subject to focus all attention on an object or voice Suggest bodily sensations that should occur: arms going limp, feet getting warm, eyelids getting heavy Effects of Hypnosis - Heightened Suggestibility Unquestioningly believe hypnotist Readily respond to his/her suggestions - Reduced sensitivity to pain Withstand painful conditions, dental work, childbirth, etc. without anesthetics - Sensory distortions and hallucinations See/hear/feel/taste/smell things that are not there; or not sense things that are there; or things differently than reality - Disinhibition Less inhibited about doing things they might normally consider to be embarrassing or socially unacceptable - Posthypnotic Suggestions Suggestions made during hypnosis can affect later behavior (ex. Posthypnotic amnesia) What Research Tells Us About Hypnosis - Susceptibility varies across individuals... but we don’t know why - People cannot be forced to do things - People cannot perform extraordinary feats - Does not increase true accuracy of memories or re-experiencing of early life events - Can be used successfully for medical and psychological purposes Two Theories of Hypnosis 1. Hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness Dissociation, or split in consciousness One part of mind operates independently of consciousness Two streams: one that is hypnotized, and a ‘hidden observer’ that does not participate Note studies with painful stimuli
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2. Sociocognitive Approach An interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject Subjects are in a normal role of a hypnotized subject, in response to an authoritative figure Not necessarily ‘faking’’ it—many continue to act hypnotized when nobody is watching Ex. Reliving ‘past lives’ under hypnosis—construction of fantasy based on own beliefs and direction form hypnotist (pg 164) Biology and Hypnosis - EEG studies: brain waves during hypnosis resemble those during relaxed/drowsy awake state; alpha waves -
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