ladder but the workplace continues to be infiltrated by racial and masculine

Ladder but the workplace continues to be infiltrated

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ladder but the workplace continues to be infiltrated by racial and masculine domination Race is the main explanation as to why blacks working in white-collar jobs are the first to be fired On entering the workplace, nonwhites and women are met with glass ceilings : unspoken obstacles to advancement designed to handicap members of dominated groups (one reason why white males have all higher positions) Studies estimate that these barriers account for 1/3 of the income gap between black and white men What keeps these ceilings in place? Homosocial reproduction : authorities tend to fill positions of power with people like themselves Practiced by whites and nonwhites alike “ingroup favoritism might be universal, but oppurtunities to practice it are not” Welfare Welfare: government provisions intended to help disadvantaged people, including those who are poor, elderly, war veterans, unemployed and disabled. Allocate resources for specific needs such as food, medical care, or housing Cash programs provide recipients with regular income, these include TANF, social security and general assistance Why is American Welfare So Skimpy? After Japan we have the skimpiest welfare Deals with the relationship between the development of social spending programs and the career of racial domination Because new deal programs only worsened racial inequalities, president Johnson hoped to initiate new welfare programs that promoted racial equality Through his war on poverty (1960s) he targeted inner-city ghettos by implementing school improvements, housing allowances, job training, and community action programs
Racial justice had to be accompanied by economic justice White democrats didn’t like this and turned away Nixon sought to cater to the growing white hostility aimed at nonwhites and antipoverty programs to reach the “forgotten Americans”. He shifted the welfare focus away from the urban poor Although war on poverty would have helped the poor, nonwhites and whites, they were thwarted by racial divisions and white backlash Since then welfare spending has been rolled back 1996 Clinton replaces the AFDC with TANF which placed strict restrictions on how long recipients could collect welfare: 2 years while unemployed and only 5 years over a lifetime. Corporate welfare : government provisions reserved exclusively for corporations or industries, payments and benefits including grants, contracts, subsidies, tax relief, low interest loans and government services. Federal government spends more on corporate welfare than helping the people who need it Who’s on Welfare? Most Americans have benefited from welfare during some point in their lives 2/3 of all Americans collect means-tested public assistance during some point in their lives welfare programs are not just for the poor, all American’s use them TANF: single mothers, refugees, recently unemployed workers, new immigrants, and poor families living in urban and rural areas Blacks and Hispanics are overrepresented on welfare lists

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