Investigation 33 handwriting and sat scores an

Info icon This preview shows pages 202–204. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Investigation 3.3: Handwriting and SAT Scores An article about handwriting appeared in the October 11, 2006 issue of the Washington Post . The article mentioned that among students who took the essay portion of the SAT exam in 2005-06, those who wrote in cursive style scored significantly higher on the essay, on average, than students who used printed block letters. Researchers wanted to know whether simply writing in cursive would be a way to increase scores. (a) Identify the explanatory and response variables in this study. Also classify the variables as quantitative or categorical. Explanatory: Response: (b) Would you conclude from this study that using cursive style causes students to score better on the essay? If so, explain why. If not, identify a potential confounding variable, and explain how it provides an alternative explanation for why the cursive writing group would have a significantly higher average essay score. The article also mentioned a different study in which the same one essay was given to all graders. But some graders were shown a cursive version of the essay and the other graders were shown a version with printed block letters. Researchers randomly decided which version the grader would receive. The average score assigned to the essay with the cursive style was significantly higher than the average score assigned to the essay with the printed block letters. (c) Explain a key difference between how this study was conducted and how the first study was conducted. (d) Would the difference cited in (c) make you more willing to draw a cause-and-effect conclusion between writing style and SAT score with the second study than with the first one? Explain.
Image of page 202

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chance/Rossman, 2015 ISCAM III Investigation 3.3 202 Definition: An observational study is one in which the researchers passively observe and record information about the observational units. In an experimental study , the researchers actively impose the explanatory variable (often called treatment ) on the observational units (can also be called the experimental units in an experiment). (e) Classify the first and second study above as observational or experimental: Study of 2006 exams: Study of one response written both ways: (f) Explain why the experimental study should be less susceptible to the potential for a confounding variables between the writing style and the score. (g) Discuss one disadvantage to the experimental study compared to the observational study for this research question. Study Conclusions The second study determined for each judge whether they would grade the exam written in block letters or in cursive letters. Because it was the same exam otherwise, there shouldn’t be any other reason for the difference in scores apart from the type of writing. For this reason, because the difference was statistically significant, we will be willing to conclude that the writing style caused the difference in scores. However, this only tells us about that one exam and in the slightly artificial condition of asking the judges to grade the exam. We don’t know whether the same effect would be found on other essays or
Image of page 203
Image of page 204
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern