3.5 An Enhanced Dichotomy Approach According to Tang（2006）, there are two sources of risks in a supply chain, namely 1.Operation risks. 2. Disruption risks. This suggestion broadly typologies risks in two categories. The former is re-
A Comprehensive Study on Research Approaches to Supply Chain Risk Identification — 55 — 『商学集志』第 82 巻第１号（’12 . 8） lated to daily operation which is internal factor while the latter is non-operational ex- ternal factor. To push this dichotomy further, Stone- braker et al.（2009）defined that the risk that make supply chain fragile has two main di- mensions .i.e. internal factors and external, with a footnote on random events. As for the internal source he classifies risk sources as １．Physical logistics: Mechanical breakdowns; damage en route, shipping mishaps, accidents. ２．Behavior of suppliers ３．Behavior of customers ４．Information, communication, and con- trol system ５．People As for the Externalities, he points out 4 dimensions to identify supply chain risks １．Legal, political and acts of government ２．Behavior of competitors ３．Financial, accounting, and economics ４．Environmental impact and unanticipated / random events １．Acts of nature（weather） ２．Other external factor ３．Other factors 3.6 A Social System Approach Wagner and Bode（2006）call a nega- tive deviation from the expected value of a performance measure（resulting in negative consequences for the focal firm）a “supply chain risk” when this deviation is the result of a supply chain disruption. Accordingly they divide supply chain risk sources for identification into five distinct classes: １．Demand side Result from disruptions emerging from downstream supply chain operations （Juttner 2005）. It includes disruptions in the physical distribution of products to the end-customer and the distribu- tion network, as well as the uncertainty caused by customers’ unforeseeable demands. The so-called “bullwhip ef- fect” emanating volatility of inventories along the chain is its classic case. ２．Supply side Reside in purchasing, suppliers, sup- plier relationships, and supply net- works. Supply business risks relate to events that affect the continuity of the supplier and result in the interruption and termination of the byer-supplier relationship, including financial instabil- ity of suppliers, capacity constraints or shortages. Suppliers’ inability of adap- tion to changes suppliers. ３．Regulatory, Legal and Bureaucratic Risk Refer to the legal enforceability and ex- ecution of supply chain –relevant laws and policies as well as the degree and frequency of changes in these laws and policies. The higher the regulatory, le- gal and bureaucratic risk, the lower the supply chain performance.
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