It is critical to build climate and disaster resilience into national policies and development
assistance going forward. While it is recognized that this comes with an upfront investment cost, well-
designed actions can be more cost-effective in the long run than disaster relief.
The benefits of
avoided and reduced losses can outweigh investment costs on average by about four to one.
addition, more focus is needed on ex-ante adaptation to long term climate change. Over the past two
decades only 4 cents of every dollar spent on development aid was invested in defending that aid from
the impact of disasters.
Capturing multiple benefits for development and climate change.
can be more effective when development interventions enable climate benefits to accrue alongside
other economic benefits. Many climate change mitigation actions have strong local co-benefits in terms
Building Resilience: Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development, World Bank, 2013
Foresight: Reducing Risks of Future Disasters – Priorities for Decision Makers. Final Project Report. The
Government Office for Science, London. (In all cases, a cost-benefit analysis of risk management is greatly influenced
by value judgments on the discount rate, the time horizon over which benefits and costs are accrued, and the inclusion
of exclusion of non-monetary outcomes, such as loss of human life), Government of the UK, 2012
Reviewing the Economic Efficiency of Disaster Risk Management. Review commissioned by the Foresight Project:
Reducing Risks of Future Disasters. UK Government Office for Science, Mechler, R., 2012