Removal or tumor and surrounding tissue may be done

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: removal or tumor and surrounding tissue -May be done with laparoscope and small incisions to minimize tissue damage and improved recovery time -Removal of adequate surrounding tissue may result in function change -Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): alternative surgery done for small single tumors in solid or fluid-filled organs, not in lungs Radiation Therapy: may be used alone or as a part of combined therapy. It’s most effective in rapidly dividing cells. Some cells are radio resistant. Also used as adjuvant therapy prior to/after surgery Methods of administration: -External sources: cobalt machine -Internal insertation of radioactive material at tumor site -Instill radioisotope in a solution into a body cavity ensures containment and used for specific cancers Adverse Effects of Radiation Bone Marrow Depression: decreased leukocytes which increase risk of infections, decreased erythrocytes which causes fatigue and tissue breakdown and decreased platelets which could cause excessive bleeding Epithelial Cell Damage: damage to blood vessels and skin, and hair loss Infertility: due to abdominal radiation
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Non-specific fatigue and lethargy: can lead to mental depression Chemotherapy Antineoplastic drugs: can be used alone or in combination with surgery or radiation Usually a combination of 2-4 drugs: given at periodic intervals Classification includes: antimitotics, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and antibiotics Drugs interfere with protein synthesis and/or DNA replication Adverse Effects of Chemotherapy Bone Marrow Depression: limiting factor with chemo; blood tested before treatment. The nadir or point of lowest cell count may occur at different points in the cycle depending on the particular drug Nausea: occurs prior to, during, or after treatment. Anti-emetics are usually given Epithelial Cell Damage: occurs easily, hair loss, and breakdown of the skin and mucosa Damage to Specific Areas: with some anti-neoplastic drugs they can damage area such as fibrosis in the lungs, myocardial cell, or kidney damage Other Drugs to Treat Cancer Blocking agents act to block receptors for growth promoters on cancer cells Biological response modifiers (BMRs) augment the natural immune response Angiogenesis Inhibitors inhibit the stimulus for growth of blood vessels Analgesics prescribed to alleviate pain and may be used in high doses Nutrition Patients with advanced cancer are often malnourished. Contributing factors are change in taste sensations, anorexia, vomiting/diarrhea from treatments, sore mouth or loss of teeth, pain and fatigue, and malabsorption due to inflammation of the digestive tract. Complementary Therapies May include: -Massage mediation, counseling, exercise, or therapeutic touch -Research-based evidence has not been published for: raw food macrobiotic diet, or use of insulin and glucose with chemotherapy -Health care workers need to be aware of these different types of therapies to advise patients Prognosis Cancer-free state: 5-year survival without recurrence Childhood leukemia
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