ones own behaviors emotions and intentions with another agent to achieve

Ones own behaviors emotions and intentions with

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one’s own behaviors, emotions, and intentions with another agent to achieve specific goals—for example, to flirt, to generate rapport, etc. Unlike behavioral scripts, which place social skills “in the head” of each individual (e.g. as a series of rules), an enactive approach emphasizes the distributed, joint nature of social skill. De Jaegher and colleagues’ enactive approach further enriches the topic of social interactions by considering them to be a form of sensorimotor activity , and fundamentally similar
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 17 to other types of learned, sensorimotor skills, such as walking (McGann & de Jaegher, 2009). From this perspective, a couple of similarities between social interactions and other skilled, sensorimotor processes can be explored. First, similar to how certain skills require the mastery of sensorimotor contingencies—for example, learning how to shift one’s weight to retain balance on a bicycle—interacting with individuals requires the learning of self-other contingencies (which span multiple levels, including movements, emotions, goals, etc.). Over time, individuals may develop considerable “know-how” for how to engage in successful “mutually constructed regulatory patterns” with other agents (Lyons et al., 1998; p. 285), which help achieve whatever goals are currently present in the social interaction. Second, because knowledge underlying effective intergroup interactions is proposed to be largely implicit (e.g. Lyons, et al., 1998), improvements in intergroup contact are likely to be strongest when individuals are given the opportunity to actually interact, rather than through processes involving explicit knowledge (e.g. learning or unlearning of stereotypes)—similar to how riding a bicycle produces faster learning than reading instructions on how to ride it. As previously mentioned, past studies of intergroup contact have often examined whether simplifying intergroup interactions as much as possible—for instance, through the use of behavioral scripts (e.g. Avery et al., 2009)—increases positive intergroup outcomes. However, this approach fully ignores the role of developing effective forms of behavioral coordination, which is precisely what embodied approaches have explored. One intergroup contact scenario that is compatible with embodied approaches is the use of social interaction that require the development of more complex forms of behavioral coordination. One such example is perturbation training (e.g. Gorman, Amazeen, & Cooke, 2010), a technique developed in the group performance literature, in which previously stable patterns of behavioral coordination
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 18 between individuals are intentionally disrupted through the introduction of obstacles or barriers. For example, when training a flight crew (consisting of multiple individuals), simulators may introduce novel physical obstacles that require the development of spontaneous, novel forms of behavioral coordination between partners (Gorman, Amazeen, & Cooke, 2010). These studies
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