Ribosomes made 8 outline the structures and general

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Ribosomes made 8) Outline the structures and general functions of the components of the endomembrane system a. Nuclear envelope b. Nucleus
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c. Endoplasmic reticulum d. Golgi apparatus e. Lysosomes f. Vacuoles g. Peroxisomes h. Plasma membrane 9) Distinguish between the rough ER and the smooth ER a. Rough ER i. Ribosomes ii. Synthesis of proteins iii. Protein sorting via membrane vesicles iv. Glycosylation 1. Attachment of carbohydrates to proteins and lipids b. Smooth ER i. Diverse metabolic processes ii. Alcohol and exercise 1. More smooth ER iii. Accumulation of calcium ions 1. Muscle contraction iv. Synthesis and modification of lipids 1. Including production of estrogen and testosterone 10) Know the important functions of the plasma membrane a. Protection, regulation, structure, and selective permeability 11) Outline the structures and general functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts a. Both: i. Generate energy ii. Have an inner and outer membrane iii. Binary fission iv. Own DNA b. Mitochondria i. Supply cells with ATP ii. More muscle: more mitochondria iii. Cristae 1. Increase surface area iv. Mitochondrial matrix 1. Compartment enclosed by inner membrane c. Chloroplasts i. Generally known as plastids ii. Carry out photosynthesis iii. Thylakoid membrane iv. Chromoplasts: fruits and flowers= colors v. Leucoplasts: lack pigment molecules 1. Amyloplast: leucoplast that synthesizes and stores starch a. Roots and underground plant structures 12) Evaluate the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory a. Proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from bacteria that took up residence within primordial eukaryotic cells i. Smaller pieces lived inside larger pieces
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13) List the categories of proteins that are sorted cotranslationally and post-translationally a. 14) Describe the steps that occur during the cotranslational sorting of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum a. 15) Outline the steps of post-translational sorting of proteins to mitochondria a. 16) Describe the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure a. Describes the structure of the plasma membrane: serves as a barrier between intra and extra cellular environments i. Mosaic of components include: 1. Phospholipids 2. Cholesterol 3. Proteins 4. Carbohydrates 17) Identify the three different types of membrane proteins a. Integral membrane proteins i. Transmembrane proteins: cannot be removed without disrupting the integrity of the membrane 1. Have one or more regions that are physically integrated into the interior of the phospholipid bilayer 2. Folded into alpha-helices a. Nonpolar region/interactions ii. Lipid-anchored proteins 1. Has a lipid molecule that is covalently attached to an amino acid side chain within the protein b. Peripheral Membrane Proteins i. Non covalently bound to integral membrane proteins that project out of the membrane ii. Bound to polar head groups via hydrogen or ionic bonds 18) Describe the fluidity of membranes a. Individual molecules remain close but have the ability to readily move within the membrane b. Membranes are semifluid i.
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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