B dsl unlike voip dsl moves over copper lines similar

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b)DSL: Unlike VoIP, DSL moves over copper lines similar to traditional landline phone service. Many consumers in Puerto Rico choose DSL over regular phone service because it gives them the option to purchase internet service with it. Unlike dial-up internet, DSL internet allows people to use the phone and the internet simultaneously. DSL internet is also many times faster than traditional dial-up service.c)Landline: This is the traditional home phone service. This system uses a series of underground wires to connect to a jack inside a customer's home. This type of service hasbeen decreasing significantly. This technology, however, offers a more reliable and clear connection. The drawback is that this technology is not mobile and also will not work without power.d)Wireless phone: The primary advantage of cellular service is its mobility. Consumers can use a wireless phone service to make calls from almost anywhere in the country. Consumers can also use the phone and the internet simultaneously.Alternative forms of communicationUnfortunately, Puerto Rico had not invested a lot in alternative forms of communications, as seen throughout Hurricane Maria when the whole country lost power and, consequently, communication capabilities failed. The inoperability of the telecommunication sector before and after the hurricane gave the appearance that Puerto Rico was wiped off the map. The most reliable form of communication during the crisis was a radio station that remained operable throughout the emergency period. Aside from the radio station providing a broadcast during and after the hurricane, other forms of radio are available for use in Puerto Rico: HAM radio: HAM (amateur) radio can be used to talk, send data or text, and use Morse code to communicate with other HAM operators on specific radio frequency. HAM radio operators often arrive shortly after natural disasters to assist in establishing quick forms of communication across the island.Two-way radio: This type of communication can do both receive and transmit a signal. This technology permits people to communicate with other radios operating in the same frequency.
PUERTO RICO’S COMMUNICATION DURING HURRICANE MARIANew TechnologyTraditional networks rely on a small number of wired access points or wireless hotspots to connect users. In a wireless "mesh" network, however, the network connection is spread out among dozens or even hundreds of wireless mesh nodes that talk to each other to share the network connection across a large area. Need and Purpose for Redundancy in Communication InfrastructureIt is critical to have multiple modes of communication before a storm and during recovery operations. Communication networks are prone to fail due to destructive debris, downed power lines, grid destruction, or collapsed radio or cell towers. All of these conditions can create a communication blackout (Chen & Hong, 2010). Even if an outage does not occur, networks can still become compromised due to the high demand on the grid (Mukherjee, Habib,

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