Shingo,(Arnheiter and Maleyeff,2005). Toyota Production System (TPS) is recognized with being the birthplace of just-in-time (JIT)production methods, a key element of lean production, and for this reason the TPS remains a model of excellence for supportive of lean manage-ment,(Arnheiter and Maleyeff,2005). TPS was the developed of manufacturing began shortly after the Second World War, pioneered by Taiichi Ohno and associates, while employed by the Toyota motor company. Forced by shortages in both capital and resources, Eiji Toyoda trained his workers to eliminate all types waste (seven wastes). Eiji defined the waste as ―anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space and time which are absolutely essential to add value to the product‖ (Russell and Taylor, 2000, p. 737),(Pepper,Spedding ,2010). The Toyota Production System (TPS) became the dominant production model to emerge from number of concepts around at the time (Katayama and Bennett, 1996; Bartezzaghi, 1999). As a result of the International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP) benchmarking study, and the work of Womack et al. (1990), US and European companies began adapting the TPS under the title of just-in-time (JIT) to remain competitive with Japanese industry.(Pepper,Spedding ,2010). Lean manufacturing is about controlling the resources in accordance with the customers’ needs and to reduce unnecessary waste or non-value add (including the waste of time). The concept was introduced at a larger scale by Toyota in the 1950s, but not labeled lean manufacturing until the now famous book about the automobile appeared in 1990.(Andersson, Eriksson and Torstensson, 2006). Lean manufacturing started in the form of the Toyota Production System has been around for decades, it did not get integrated with Six Sigma until the late 1990sand early 2000s (George, 2002, 2003). the approach in the areas where improvements could be identified and implemented quickly (one to four weeks), many of which involved the flow of information and materials through a process. Today Lean Six Sigma is the improvement approach of choice. (Snee, 2010). The ―birth‖ of the term ―lean production‖ The IMVP Researcher John Krafcik originally coined the term ―lean production‖. IMPV is an abbreviation of the International Motor Vehicle Program established at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1985. During the following 5 years, the IMVP staff carried out the world’s most comprehensive benchmarking study ever seen.
ISSN: 2349-5677 Volume 1, Issue 6, November 2014 101 The study collected data from automobile assembly plans all over the world in order to understand the differences in quality and productivity. The results of this benchmarking study were published in the well-known book The Machine that Changed the World (Womack et al., 1990), in which there is an exciting historical analysis of the machine called ―the automobile(Dahlgaard ,Park 2006).
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