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MKTG Exam 2 Study Guide COLORS

A type of survey that involves interviewing

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= a type of survey that involves interviewing businesspeople at their offices concerning industrial products or services Focus Group = 7 to 10 people who participate in a group discussion led by a moderator Open-ended question = an interview question that encourages an answer phrased in the respondent’s own words Closed-ended question = an interview question that asks the respondent to make a selection from a limited list of responses Scaled-response question = a closed-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondent’s answer Observation research = a research method that relies on 4 types of observation: People watching people, People watching an activity, Machines watching people, and Machines watching an activity Mystery shoppers = researchers posing as customers who gather observational data about a store ( collect data about customer/employee interactions) Behavioral targeting (BT) = a form of observation marketing research that uses data mining coupled with identifying Web surfers by their IP addresses Ethnographic research = the study of human behavior in its natural context; involves observation of behavior and physical setting; comes from the field of anthropology, popular in commercial marketing Experiment = a method a researcher uses to gather primary data Sample = a subset from a larger population Universe = the population/group from which a sample will be drawn Probability sample = a sample in which every element in the population has a known statistical likelihood of being selected Random sample = a sample arranged in such a way that every element of the population has an equal chance of being selected as part of the sample Nonprobability sample = any sample in which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross section of the population (probability of each sampling units selection is unknown) - Because of low costs nonprobability samples are the basis of much marketing research Convenience sample = a form of nonprobability sample using respondents who are convenient or readily accessible to the researcher- for example, employees, friends or relatives Measurement error = an error that occurs when there is a difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process (EX: people tell the interviewer that they purchase crest toothpaste when they don’t) Sampling error = an error that occurs when a simple somehow does not represent the target population (EX: original people selected to be interviewed refuse to cooperate or were inaccessible)
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Frame error = an error that occurs when a sample drawn from a population differs from the target population (EX: not all Chicago beer drinkers have a home phone from phone book) Random error = an error that occurs when the selected sample is an imperfect representation of the overall population - Typically the only error mentioned in a written report is sampling error Field Service firm = a firm that specializes in interviewing respondents on a subcontracted basis
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