-Use Implicit Measures: Computerized measures to evaluate people’s implicit opinions about sensitive topics. -Ask about actions rather than attitudes: Ex. on a questionnaire: o Donating to charitable organizations is important to me OR I usually donate about $__ to charitable organizations each year. Self-Reporting: “More Than They Can Know” PROS: you know your own opinion better than anyone else. CONS: self-report can be inaccurate. -are people capable of accurately reporting their own feelings, thoughts, and actions? -researchers cannot assume the reasons people give for their own behavior are their actual reasons. -People may not be able to accurately explain why they acted. Self-Reporting Memories of Events: -People’s memories for the events they have participated in are not very accurate. -Confidence in memory does not equal accuracy of the memory. Research suggests that we reconsolidate memories each time we recall them. BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION: Is a type of qualitative research: research conducted in a natural setting that seeks to understand a complex human behavior by developing a complete narrative description of that behavior (not only applied to humans). Characteristics of Qualitative Research: 1. Seeks to understand human problems and deals exclusively with human interactions. 2. Seeks to develop a holistic portrayal of the problem. 3. Forms its report with words, rather than statistics. 4. Uses the views of informants in society as the basis for the result. 5. Conducted in a natural setting and relies on fieldwork.
Why Behavioral Observation? -To Operationalize Variables in Association or Causal Claims. -For Frequency Claims: Ex. observing how much people talk. Using electronically activated recorder (EAR). Results: Women speak 16, 215 words/day. Men speak 15,669 words/day. Not statistically significant. Ex. observing hockey moms and dads. Researchers observed hockey games, recorded frequency of violent or negative behavior, and positive or supportive behavior. Turns out media is wrong, hockey moms and dads aren’t too crazy. The Potential Problems with Behavioral Observation: -Seems subjective. -Can reflex researchers’ bias. -Might be an inaccurate or incomplete portrayal of the situation. -Might not generalize beyond a particular situation. BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY -Train observers well and using clear rating scales. -Use multiple observers and assess interrater reliability. Assessing Quality of Behavioral Observation: 1. CONFIRMABILITY: -Use more than one investigator to record same data and compare. -Indicate procedures used to check/recheck data. -Solicit input from colleagues regarding potential inconsistencies, contradictions, or instances of bias.
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- researcher, external validity, Ex.