REF An elderly patient reports experiencing syncope each

Ref an elderly patient reports experiencing syncope

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REF: Syncope/Pathophysiology An elderly patient reports experiencing syncope each morning when getting out of bed. Which assessment will the health care provider perform first to evaluate this patient’s symptoms? a. Cardiac enzyme levels b. Electroencephalogram
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c. Fasting blood glucose d. Orthostatic blood pressures Orthostatic blood pressures should be measured first since this patient reports problems associated with rising from a supine position. The other tests are performed as part of the diagnostic workup only if indicated by associated symptoms or suspected causes. REF: Syncope/Physical Examination 5. Pulmonary Community acquired pneumonia ( Buttaro chapter 111, kennedy chapter 8) A patient has a cough and fever and the provider auscultates rales in both lungs that do not clear with cough. The patient reports having a headache and sore throat prior to the onset of coughing. A chest radiograph shows patchy, nonhomogeneous infiltrates. Based on these findings, which organism is the most likely cause of this patient’s pneumonia? a. A virus b. Mycoplasma c. S. pneumoniae d. Tuberculosis Atypical pneumonias, such as those caused by mycoplasma often present with headache and sore throat and will have larger areas of infiltrate on chest radiograph. Viral pneumonias show more diffuse radiographic findings. S. pneumonia will have high fever and cough and distinct areas of infiltration.REF: Pathophysiology/Clinical Presentation A young adult, previously healthy clinic patient has symptoms of pneumonia including high fever and cough. Auscultation reveals rales in the left lower lobe. A chest radiograph is normal. The patient is unable to expectorate sputum. Which treatment is recommended for this patient? a. A B-lactam antibiotic plus a fluoroquinolone b. A respiratory fluoroquinolone antibiotic c. Empiric treatment with a macrolide antibiotic d. Hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics This patient likely has community-acquired pneumonia. The patient has typical symptoms and, even though the chest radiograph is normal, will require outpatient treatment. For community- acquired pneumonia in a previously healthy individual, treatment with a macrolide antibiotic is the recommended first-line therapy. B-lactam plus fluoroquinolone therapy is used for patients in the ICU. Respiratory fluoroquinolones are used for patients with underlying disorders who develop pneumonia. Hospitalization is not necessary.REF: Management
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A patient who was initially treated as an outpatient for pneumonia and then hospitalized for two weeks after no improvement continues to show no improvement after several antibiotic regimens have been attempted. What is the next step in managing this patient? a. Administration of the pneumonia vaccine b. Increasing the dose of the antibiotics c. Open lung biopsy d. Performing diagnostic bronchoscopy Patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy may have opportunistic fungal or other infections, bronchogenic carcinoma, or other diseases. Bronchoscopy can exclude or confirm these. The pneumonia vaccine is preventative for pneumococcal causes and will not help this
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