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Metaphase the second stage of mitosis in which

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Metaphase- The second stage of mitosis, inwhich chromatid pairs line up on the metaphaseplate of the cell.3.Anaphase-The third stage of mitosis in whichthe chromatids that have separated at thecentromeres move to opposite poles of the cell.4.Telophase– The final stage, begins afterchromosomal movement stops. The identical setsof chromosomes, now at opposite poles of the cell,uncoil and revert to the threadlike chromatinform. A nuclear envelope forms around eachchromatin mass, nucleoli reappear in the identicalnuclei, and the mitotic spindle breaks upV.cytoplasmic division: cytokinesis- division of a cell'scytoplasm and organelles into two identical cells; beginsin late anaphase1.cleavage furrow- a slight indentation of theplasma membrane, and is completed aftertelophase; appears midway between thecentrosomes and extends around the periphery ofthe cell; The ring constricts the center of the cell,like tightening a belt around the waist, andultimately pinches it in two.D.reproductive cell divisionI.meiosis- A type of cell division that occurs duringproduction of gametes, involving two successive nucleardivisions that result in cells with the haploid (n) numberof chromosomes.II.haploid cell (n)-Having half the number ofchromosomes characteristically found in the somatic
cells of an organism; characteristic of mature gametes.Symbolized n.III.meiosis I- begins once chromosomal replication iscomplete, consists of four phases: prophase I,metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I1.prophase I- an extended phase in which thechromosomes shorten and thicken, the nuclearenvelope and nucleoli disappear, and the mitoticspindle forms.i.Synapsis- the two sister chromatids of eachpair of homologous chromosomes pair offii.Resultingfour chromatids form a structurecalled tetradiii.Parts of the chromatids of two homologouschromosomes may exchanged with oneanother1.crossing-over- an exchange betweenparts of nonsister (geneticallydifferent) chromatids; the resultingcells are genetically unlike each otherand genetically unlike the starting cellthat produced them; results in geneticrecombination (formation of newcombinations of genes)2.Metaphase I– the tetrads formed by thehomologous pairs of chromosomes line up alongthe metaphase plate of the cell with homologouschromosomes side by side3.Anaphase I– the members of each homologouspair of chromosomes separate as they are pulledto opposite poles of the cell by the microtubulesattached to the centromeres. The pairedchromatids, held by a centromere, remaintogether.4.Telophase I- The net effect of meiosis I is thateach resulting cell contains the haploid number ofchromosomes because it contains only one
member of each pair of the homologouschromosomes present in the starting cell.

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