Examples of the infixes are presented by Crowley et al from the Talai language

Examples of the infixes are presented by crowley et

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simultaneously. Examples of the infixes are presented by Crowley et al from the Talai language as follows: mat 'die'→ ma-IN-at 'death Tangi 'cry'→ t-IN-angri 'cry', sound (Crowley et al,1999). Concerning the circumfixes which are also known as the discontinuous affixes or simulfixes, (Crowley et al.1999), the examples are taken from the Malay language or Bahasa Indonesia: merch 'red'→KE-merch-AN 'redness' adil 'just→KE-adil-AN 'justice'(Crowley et al .1999)
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17 4.3 Compounding It is a process of compounding where two or more roots, stems, or bases are jointly combined to produce compounds. It is used to form new words through combining two stems as in the words 'black-bird' or 'house keeper' in English. This combining is familiar in languages such as German and English, but much less common in languages like French and Spanish. In the systematic formation of this process, many words, while being combined, can be made of different Parts of speech. Some examples include noun-noun, such as 'horse shoe', noun-verb, trouble-shoot, adjective-verb, high jump, adjective-adjective, better sweet, verb-preposition, outcast, do up, etc. Therefore, compounding as a morphological process happens to be very productive source of new terms in languages like English and German. 4.4 Conversion Conversion is also referred to as functional shift or zero derivation. In this process, the lexeme is shifted from one category to another without adding any affix. Conversion changes the part of speech and meaning from an existing root without producing any change in spelling. Suffice it to say, this latter process is a change in the function of a word without any reduction, especially when a noun appears to be used as a verb as illustrated in the following:' record ‘torecord'. Conversion, then, is likely to be more productive in Modern English. Some examples in favor of the illustration are consecutively stated as follows: Dust, glue, chair→ a dust, a glue, a chair.Guess, must, spy→aguess, a must, a spy (George Yule, the study of language, Fourth Edition). In brief, conversion is the change in the function of certain words without any mutation in their Morphology.
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18 4.5 ReduplicationIt is a process through which a part of the root or the whole root is repeated in a particular word or lexeme. It is the Morphological process that involves copying a part of the base and attaching it as an affix. Reduplication is almost rare in European languages with very few exceptions (George Yule, the study of language, Fourth Edition). Some samples of these examples are pooh-pooh, goody-goody, roly-poly and sing-song as suggested by Sapir. However, this process is constantly instantiated through other examples of the Malay language: Kerja-kerja 'works', buda-buda, 'kids', and resipe-resipe'recipes' (Karuna, karan, 2000). What is more, reduplication is used in inflections to apply a grammatical function, like plurality. While, in lexical derivation the process appears to create new words. All in all, the level of productivity remains variable in this process as far as it is found in a wide range of languages.
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