E african american women had scarce opportunities

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e. African-American women had scarce opportunities other than domestic service. Question 7 a. Immigrants were frequently used by employers as strikebreakers to undermine the efforts of trade unions to agitate for improved wages and working conditions. Consequently, some trade unions favored government-imposed restrictions on immigration during this era to prevent the prevalent use of strikebreaking immigrant workers from undercutting the economic goals of these trade unions. b. Immigrants were often willing to work for lower wages and in dangerous working conditions, and employers were eager to accommodate their settling for substandard, non-union wages and acceptance of hazardous working conditions. This development undercut the ability of unions to bargain for higher wagers and achieve safe and healthy working conditions for workers. c. Immigrants working in factories spoke and read several different foreign languages and many did not possess adequate or any English communication skills. This development proved problematic to trade union organizers who generally communicated primarily in English. d. Some trade union leaders believed that some immigrants’ embrace of socialism, communism, or anarchism undermined their collective bargaining efforts with employers and were supportive of political efforts to exclude prospective immigrants who professed radical ideologies, such as anarchism. e. Correct answer. Immigrants were eager, predominant, and dedicated factory workers in sectors, such as garment and needle trades, textiles, and cigar making. Employers were eager to embrace these immigrant workers because they were willing to work for cheap wages and in unsafe working conditions. Question 8 a. Liberal Protestantism did not attempt to link theories of racial superiority to an imperialistic survival of the fittest political dogma. The analytical linking of racial superiority to imperialism was characteristic of evangelical Protestants who rejected modern scientific theories, such as Darwinism, and found justification for their embrace of imperialism in a fundamentalist reading of the Bible. b. The Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) was founded by Mary Baker Eddy on the belief that prayer, as taught by Christian Science, could cure Americans from the illnesses, anxieties, and diseases they experienced living in the country’s harried, nerve-racked, and urbanized late nineteenth
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century society. By elevating the power of Christian Science prayer, above medicine, as the key to healing sickness, Mary Baker Eddy and her Christian Science allies were rejecting the effort by liberal Protestantism to accommodate religion to modern scientific theories and discoveries. c. Liberal Protestants did not attempt to use Darwinism or other modern scientific theories to prove the superiority of the religious principles of liberal Protestantism over the religious beliefs of Catholicism and Judaism. Liberal Protestants placed a sunny emphasis on community fellowship, earthly
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