increased and the export of surplus ensued depriving the societies of the

Increased and the export of surplus ensued depriving

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increased and the export of surplus ensued, depriving the societies of the benefit of their natural resources and labor. That is an integral part of underdevelopment in the contemporary sense. In some quarters, it has often been thought wise to substitute the term “developing” for “underdeveloped.” One of the reasons for so doing is to avoid any unpleasantness which may be attached to the second term, which might be interpreted as meaning underdeveloped mentally, physically, morally, or in any other respect Actually, if ‘'underdevelopment” were related to anything other than comparing economies, then the most under- developed country in the world would be the U.S,A., which practices external oppression on a massive scale, while internally there is a blend of exploitation.^Bfutality, and psychiatric disorder. However, on thé economic level, it is best to remain with the word “underdeveloped” rather than “developing,” because the latter creates the impression that all the coun- tries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are escaping from a state of eco- nomic backwardness relative to the industrial nations of the world, and that they are emancipating themselves from the relationship of exploitation. That is certainly not true, and many underdeveloped countries in Africa and elsewhere are becoming more underdeveloped in comparison with the world’s great powers, because their exploitation by the metropoles is being intensified in new ways. Economic comparisons can be made by looking at statistical tables' or indices of what goods and services are produced and used in the societies HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA 15 under discussion. Professional economists speak of the national income of countries and the national income per capita. These phrases have already become part of the layman’s language, by way of the newspapers, and no detailed explanation will be offered here. It is enough to note that the national income is a measurement of the total wealth of the country, while the per capita income is a figure obtained by dividing the national income by the number of inhabitants in order to get an idea of the “average” wealth of each inhabitant. This “average" can be misleading where there are great extremes of wealth. A young Ugandan put it in a very personal form when he said that the per capita income of his country camouflaged the fantastic difference between what was earned by his poor peasant father and what was earned by the biggest local capitalist, Madhvani. In con- sidering the question of development away from the state of underdevelop- ment, it is of supreme importance to realize that such a process demands the removal of the gross inequalities of land distribution, property holding, and income, which are camouflaged behind national income figures. At one stage in history, advance was made at the cost of entrenching privileged groups. In our times, development has to mean advance which liquidates present privileged groups with their corresponding unprivileged groups.
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