Ionizing radiation is an excellent sterilizing agent

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Ionizing radiation is an excellent sterilizing agent that penetrates deep into objects. It destroys bacterial endospores and vegetative cells of all kinds (no effect against viruses) Gamma radiation is also used to sterilize inanimate objects as well as meats and other foods
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Heavy Metals Heavy metals such as mercury, silver, arsenic, zinc and copper are used as germicides They combine with proteins and often with sulfhydryl groups and inactivate them.
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Professor: Eduardo Areche Metabolism: Energy, Enzymes, and Regulation
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An Overview of Metabolism metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions carried by an organism catabolism – releases energy by breaking complex molecules into simpler ones anabolism – reactions that require energy to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electron Carriers Many metabolic processes involve oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfers) Oxidation entails loss or removal of electrons Reduction entails gain of electrons Electron carriers are often used to transfer electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor Oxidation-Reduction reactions can result in energy release, which can be conserved and used to form ATP
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Enzymes Enzymes are Protein Catalysts have great specificity for the reaction catalyzed and the molecules acted on A catalyst Is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being permanently altered substrates reacting molecules products substances formed by reaction
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Structure and Classification of Enzymes apoenzyme protein component of an enzyme cofactor nonprotein component of an enzyme (ions) coenzyme – loosely attached (vitamins) holoenzyme = apoenzyme + cofactor
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Enzyme Inhibition Enzymatic activity can be regulated by using molecules that slow or even stop their activity completely. Mechanism of inhibition: Competitive inhibitors Non competitive inhibitors Feedback mechanism
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Competitive Inhibition of Enzyme Activity The inhibitor binds to the active site and prevents it’s natural substrate from being metabolized
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Non Competitive Inhibition
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  • Fall '11
  • EduardoAreche
  • Microbiology, Bacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, moist heat, chemical AntiMicrobial Agents

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