Litigation Release - In Pursuit of Successful Strategies 201204.pdf

Things that may be useful to men in any wa y 234

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things that may be useful to men in any wa y.” 234 Within a week of the declaration of war, the king appointed three magnates as his lieutenants for the conduct of the war over the winter, each based in a royal fortress: the Earl of Warwick in Chester in the north, closest to Gwynedd; Roger Mortimer at Montgomery in the middle March, opposite Southern Powys; and Pain de Chaworth in the south, at Carmarthen. Each was a Lord Marcher, who well understood the land and the enemy, just as Gerald had advised. 235 They were provided with moderate-sized strike-forces of cavalry at royal wages, and 232 In early 1277 Llywelyn was pleading to be given the king's grace and proclaiming his willingness to do homage and to pay a substantial cash indemnity in exchange for a peace of goodwill (including the release of Eleanor). Smith, Llywelyn , pp. 410-11. 233 Ibid., p.360. The writs of summons were issued 12 December. CCR, 410. On 24 January, several dozen men received letters of protection for service through midsummer as they wer e “going” on service in Wales; from 3 March additional letters were mostly for those who had “gone.” Calendar of Patent Rolls , 1272-81 [hereafter CPR ], pp. 189-92. 234 CCR , p. 361. Cf. the orders of 12 Dec. 1276 and 3 January 1277 to prevent “corn [grain], wine, honey, salt, iron, arms,” or other goods from moving into Wales. Ibid., pp. 410, 366. 235 John E. Morris untangles the narrative in The Welsh Wars of Edward I (Oxford, 1901), an outstanding book, especially considering its age. However, especially since his approach is mainly from the English perspective, his work should be read in conjunction with Smith, Llywelyn. Chaworth had under royal pay both infantry and 100 cavalry under John de Beauchamp, custodian of Carmarthen and Cardigan castles. Smith, Llywelyn , p. 419n. He also had substantial contingents of cavalry provided by the Marcher lords, who did not receive royal pay.
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140 given direction over the feudal contingents and arrayed infantry of regional landholders as needed. Each captain, in pursuance of the divide-and-conquer strategy advocated by Gerald, was given authority to receive i nto the king’s peace any Welshmen who were willing to submit. 236 All sorts of other preparations were initiated: collecting a tax granted by Parliament, taking loans from Italian bankers, purchasing and stockpiling grain, importation of warhorses, summons for Gascon crossbowmen, repairs to border fortresses, purchase of large numbers of crossbow quarrels, and so on. 237 On 10 February, Llywelyn was excommunicated by the archbishop of Canterbury on the basis of his failure to fulfill his oaths to his lord. His followers were subjected to the same sanction if they did not leave his service within a month. This made it possible to the war against the Welsh prince to be presented as a holy war, and gave any Welshman who was considering defecting to the English a convenient excuse for doing so.
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