This schism occurs early and thus leads to a

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This schism occurs early and thus leads to a difference in approach amongst Muslims The state associated w/Islam moves and expands Conquest and expansion led to lots of new members through conversion and migration (importance of migration!!) The religion spreads very far, very quickly o Rulers have to decide what to do with non-Muslim communities Could convert forcibly, but Islam forbade that Could wait and allow truth of religion to become clear to them Could kill everybody
Could enslave everybody o It took 300 years of Islamic rule for Islam to be the majority religion in the Middle East o “People of the book” were treated the most well (compared to other non-Muslims) BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Predecessors of the Ottomans were the Mongols o The Mongols were united under Genghis Khan and came driving out of Mongolia in the 13 th century, the moved away Westward, and in the process, pushed other Turkish groups out o One of these Turkish groups that got pushed out was the clan of Osman , whose family settled in Turkey (Anatolia) in 1299 C.E. Created one of the most powerful early modern empires: the Ottoman Empire Change in internal momentum caused my expansion of Mongols!! THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Turkic-speaking people and migration Mongols go in to East Africa and Southwest Europe; only rival was the Persian Empire, or Iran European powers were no match for Ottomans o European leaders were considered to be below the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire o 1453 : Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Empire, took the name Caesar (Byzantine Empire’s capital was Roman Empire) Dynastic Power : o Succession held by Osman’s family o Multi-ethnic and multi-national tradition continued Tolerance was practiced Rulers intervene very little in personal lives of citizens in Ottoman Empire Non-Muslim minorities were left alone to manage their affairs and enforce community rules o Armenian Christians and Jews o Only had to pay the non-Muslim tax State wasn’t paying attention to trading networks, and the Christians and Jews controlled much of the wealth Complex bureaucratic system: o Meritocracy o Janissary Core: People recruited to work for the Ottoman State Authorities went to villages (usually in East Europe and Balkan) and selected superior young boys, brought them to Istanbul,
where they were converted to Islam and schooled and put in appropriate positions These boys were raised by the state to be completely loyal to the state This system represented great upward mobility Sultan was a father figure to the boys an effective way of governing Sultan Suleiman OTTOMAN EXPANSION: 1300-1699 C.E. most of territory governed by janissaries janissaries governed only places in which they were not born; and the state moved them around frequently, to prevent them from becoming sympathetic to subjects of any one place Meritocracy was multi-cultural and tolerant, but there were drawbacks o Some disliked the janissary system; saw it as too much government intervention

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