but were eventual victors against the French and their Algonquian allies in the French and Indian wars from 1689 to 1763. These long struggles were marked by King William's War, 1689-97; Queen Anne's War, 1702-13; King George's War 1744- 48; and the French and Indian War 1754-63. New York trader and politician Sir William Johnson developed friendly relations with the Haudenosaunee, especially the Mohawk. He lived in Mohawk country along the Mohawk River, which branches off from the Hudson River. Johnson lived with a Mohawk woman named Molly Brant. With Mohawk warriors under Chief Hendrick, he defeated the French at Lake George in 1755, one of the critical British victories in the last of the French and Indian wars. The Haudenosaunee warriors participated in other wars after the French were defeated. Some Seneca joined the Ottawa leader Pontiac to fight the British in his rebellion of 1763. Some other Haudenosaunee, usually referred to as Mingo, under the Cayuga chief Logan, joined the SHAWNEE in Lord Dunmore's War of 1774. The Haudenosaunee fought their former allies, the British, in these conflucts because English-speaking settlers were appropriating their lands. In the American Revolution from 1775 to 1783, however, many Haudenosaunee again sided with the British, this time against the American rebels. The Haudenosaunee thought that the Americans offered the greater threat to Indian lands. During this period, the Mohawk Thayendanegea, or Joseph Brant, Molly Brant's brother, rose to prominence. William Johnson had treated Joseph Brant like a son and had provided for his education. Joseph Brant had grown up a close friend to John Johnson and Guy Johnson, Sir William's son and nephew. Brant drew on these experiences, becoming an eloquent speaker in several different languages as well as a master tactician in warfare. After having visited England with Guy Johnson to meet King George III, Joseph Brant traveled among all the six nations to encourage their support for the British. His people, the Mohawk, agreed with him, as did the Seneca, Onondaga, and Cayuga, Chiefs Cornplanter and Red Jacket, both Seneca, were other important leaders in the fight. But the Oneida and Tuscarora sided with the Americans, causing the first major split in the Iroquois League in 200 years. Samuel Kirkland, a Protestant missionary living among the Oneida, contracted the influence of the Johnson family and won that tribe over to the American side. The tribes who sided with the British launched many raids on American settlements near their territory. In one of the most famous incidents, Joseph Brant and his warriors, plus Walter Butler and his Tory troops, raided the Cherry Valley settlement, west of Albany, on November 11, 1778. Although the fort held, those settlers who did not make it from the outlying settlements or fields to the stockade in time were killed or taken prisoner--32 dead and 40 captured.
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- Fall '15