Application compared to anaerobic treatment methods

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application compared to anaerobic treatment methods and therefore is more widely used (Rai et al. 2005 ). 5.2.1 Aerobic Biological Treatment There are different kinds of bacteria which can be classi fi ed based on their oxygen requirements. These include aerobic, anaerobic and facultative bacteria. As the name suggests, aerobic biological treatment employs aerobic bacteria and some facultative bacteria. Aerobic biological treatment is usually of two types: activated sludge process and bio fi lm process. Activated Sludge Process Activated sludge is composed of an aggregate mixture of a number of micro-organisms and has the ability to decompose and adsorb organic matter (Pala and Tokat 2002 ). Once the activated sludge is formed, it can be removed and the remaining water further puri fi ed. The oxidation ditch process and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process are types of activated sludge processes. Oxidation ditch process Oxidation ditch process is a type of activated sludge process which was fi rst developed in the Netherlands. The components of an oxidation ditch process include an aeration equipment, an equipment for the water which has to be puri fi ed to come in or go out and mixing equipment. The ditch can be of different shapes which include a ring structure, L shape, rectangular or round shapes. Wastewater activated sludge and various microbes are mixed in a continuous loop ditch. This completes nitri fi cation and denitri fi cation of wastewater. The oxidation ditch resembles a plug fl ow, completely mixed oxidation tank in nature. The advantages of this process include long hydraulic retention time (HRT), long sludge age and low organic loading which in turn lead to high degree of puri fi cation, high reliability, easier maintenance, high impact resistance, stability, lower investment, easy operation and management, and lower energy consumption. Due to the formation of discrete aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic zones, the oxidation ditch process performs denitri fi cation ef fi ciently. Sequencing Batch Reactor Process SBR treatment process leads to removal of COD and colour from ef fl uent water. This process has good shock loading which means it can withstand good amount of organic matter and reserve water. Also, the total residence time, run time and gas supply of each stage can be altered based on the quantity of water coming in or going out. The original water contains large amount of organic matter, which provides good condi- tion for the bacteria to grow. This activated sludge leads to low sludge production compared to the standby phase when the sludge is in the endogenous respiration Nanochemicals and Ef fl uent Treatment in Textile Industries 71
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phase, rendering low sludge yield. Other advantages of this process include less processing equipment, simple structure requirement and ease of operation.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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