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In 3 centuries the population doubled. The Birth rate also improved,the mortality rate decreases. 3.5 children per woman to 4.5.Life expectancy also improves England 22 in 1000, to 35 at 1300. The people aged earlier due to malnutrition, weather and other stresses of medieval life.Causes of the Demographic ExplosionClimate: Europe is warmerBiological causes:regress of epidemic crisis. Leprosy came but did not caused death, and malaria almost completely disappeared from Europe. People are surviving longer and having stronger childrenPolitical causes: no invasions anymoreTechnical causes:new tools for agriculture. Around 12000-1250, the whole problem of famine is nearly resolves. Agricultural developmentMovement of clearing:removing forest to open new lands and cultivate more cereals. Rivers are drained and water is controlled in the Low countries to reveal more land. Peasants move high in the mountains and domesticate animals there.Clearing was undertaken by everyone, in a highly disorganized way, individuals, lords and kings, monasteries. All groupswanted more food and money.Cities also participatedby founding new cities on cleared tracts of land. When cities became full (they usually had wall around them) they cleared more land to try and develop a new city.Technical ToolsHeavy Plough instead of simple ard, to turn over the soil, remove weeds, and junk. It was made of three parts; the coulter, plowshare (removed the weeds),moldboard (lifted the soil and returned it.).Animals are used for labour, and a horse collaris used to distribute the weight of the plough around the its whole body.Crop RotationHigher populations meant more mouths to feed, so landlords reorganized heir estates to run more efficiently, and in the 10thcentury a three field system became more prevalent. A three-year rotation;Year 1: Sow during the fall and harvest in the spring.Year 2: Sow in the spring and harvest in July. (a different crop)Year 3: Let the land rest: the fallow. Animals would graze on this landMachines of the village for communal useForge:Blacksmiths jobs, forging iron, the smith created swords and amourWindmill and watermill, One mill for 50 housesThey went from 3 grain/ grain, to 6-9 grain/ grain. This is more than what people could eat which means it can be stored, and sold, thus this free people from having to worm on the land. Artisans and intellectuals can know focus on a
specific trade rather than farming. This is the change that created the Western society, and with this change the rise of urban life became possible.Peasant Living ConditionsSerfdom:pursued uniformly until the year 1000, a sort of slavery.Chiefage:a personal tax of serf for his Lord.