rats statistically significant increases in lymphomas and leukemias when fed doses close to human consumption o This was reviewed by FDA, Health Canada, EFSA study was not properly done EFSA : Aspartame has no toxicity concern at the current level of exposure to humans Phenylethylamine (one of the breakdown components in aspartame) - High brain levels of phenylethylamine: have a psychological condition making it easier to fall in LOVE <3 :D - No indication that it will penetrate their brain Aspartame present together with acesulfame-K in diet drinks (Coke Zero) - Diet Coke contains only aspartame - Coke Zero contains aspartame together with acesulfame-K o Was aimed at men since men didn’t like the term “diet” Saccharin, cyclamate and acesulfame-K have similar chemical structures Acesulfame-K - Relative sweetness: 200 - Calories: 0 - Bitter aftertaste like saccharin Splenda - Heat stable can be used in baked products UNLIKE aspartame - Technical name: Sucralose - Splenda sucralose is a chlorinated derivation of sucrose o 3 OH groups replaced by chlorine - ACCIDENTAL discovery by Leslie Hough o Asked the Indian graduate student to test the compound Misunderstood for taste noticed it was sweet 1) Later developed as an artificial sweetener - Relative sweetness: 600 - Calories: 0 - Maker of sucralose: “made from sugar, tastes like sugar” o They were SUED because just bc it’s derived from sugar doesn’t mean it is/tastes like sugar Once the structure is changed = different compound - Number 1 substitute ahead of aspartame
o Sometimes found in diet drinks Stevia Rebaudiana - Derived from NATURAL plant source - Relative sweetness: 300 - Calories: 0 - HISTORY: Not approved as food additive bc has to be tested if it’s valid/safe o Initially sold as dietary supplement Why no testing? 1) Bc tests are expensive 2) Coming from nautral sources and cannot be patented - TODAY (2008): allowed as food additive and sweetener Different forms of stevia depending on what’s added to compound (Rebaudioside A) Truvia: o Created by Coca-Cola o Contains plant chemical responsible for sweetness: REBAUDIOSIDE A Also contains erythritol, cellulose, artificial flavours Dextrose: o Besides rebaudioside A, contains: Dextrose, cellulose, artificial flavours *Both have same starting material, different additives Nectresse - Based on monk fruit - Small amount of sugar and erythritol - Relative sweetness: 300 - Calories: 0 SUMMARY - Artificial sweeteners important for ppl who can’t metabolize sugar properly (diabetics) - Mostly used by people who want to control their caloric intake o But usage does not help with maintaining/losing weight - Used as an excuse to take more calories from other sources o End up craving sugar - DON’T depend on artificial sweeteners Relative Sweetness Calories Saccharin 400-500 0 Sorbitol 0.6 2.6 Xylitol 1 2.4 Cyclamate 30 0 Aspartame 180 4 Acesulfame-K 200 0
Splenda 600 0 Stevia 300 0 Nectresse (Monk Fruit) 300 0 TOPIC 6: Agriculture Lesson 1: Agricultural Science I VIDEO #1 Agriculture is based on photosynthesis - Today: only 2% of the population supplies food for the world in contrast to 70%
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- Spring '11
- Food coloring, Pesticide, E number