DSST Criminal Justice

Require consultation between police and public and

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require consultation between police and public, and community cooperation as a means of preventing crime, (example: Neighborhood Watch Program) a.ii. Also improve negative public perception of the police a.iii. Changes in the department require the same officers to be sent to the same neighborhoods to develop relationships a.iv. Solving problems a.v. Bringing about organizational change 108. Broken Window hypothesis” – devised by James Q Wilson and George L Kelling… know this a. Wilson and Kelling believed that a broken window symbolized a deteriorating neighborhood and without repair led to eventual decline of an area and increased criminal activity b. This theory made the connection between disorder, neighborhood decay and crime c. Wilson and Kelling believed the police had to intervene at the start of the decline and “nip the problem in the bud” 109. Physical Requirements of Police Officers a. Must have at least 20/80 vision uncorrected b. Education requirements – most 2 years college 110. Selective Enforcement – the practice of relying on the discretion of the police to decide which laws to enforce 111. 4 th Amendment protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizure… know this 112. Hudson vs Palmer in 1984 – ruled that the 4 th amendment did not apply to prisons cells 113. Exclusionary rule – prohibits the use of evidence seized in violation of the 4 th amendment a. Remains controversial since guilty offenders are found innocent due to unlawfully seized evidence 114. Search Warrant – written order issued by a magistrate – commanding a search of a specified premise 115. Miranda Rights – meant to protect individuals from self-incrimination – a. part of the 14 th Amendment’s Miranda Rights - due process clause a.i. Named after the infamous 1966 Supreme Court case Miranda vs Arizona – which ruled that a specific and detailed police warning must be given a.ii. Suspects should be advised of their Constitutional rights upon arrest and before interrogations a.ii.1. Failure to do so means that a conviction can be overturned later 116. Miranda vs Arizona in 1966 – ensured that suspects were advised of their rights in order to satisfy the 5 th Amendment right against self-incrimination
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117. Miranda warning – know when the Miranda rights are read, a. before they are arrested b. before questioning c. later…. I picked a. but research this one… a. 5th Amendment – protection against self-incrimination “the right to remain silent” b. 6 th Amendment – the right to have an attorney c. 14 th Amendment – the right to a court appointed attorney 118. Inevitable Discovery Exception – a. Miranda Exceptions - from Nix vs Williams in 1984 - we would have found it anyway… 119. Public Safety Exception a. Miranda elucidated in 1984 – New York vs Quarles - rape victim told police where suspect was, police found gun holster and ask where the gun was for Public Safety 120. The Police Foundation – recommends a 3 step plan to increase the number of officers from minority groups: a. The inclusion of under-represented groups in affirmative action programs
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require consultation between police and public and...

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