Excess body fat affect health Excess weight may cause changes to your heart

Excess body fat affect health excess weight may cause

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Excess body fat affect health : Excess weight may cause changes to your heart that make it work harder to send blood to all the cells in your body Increase risk of some cancers: People often have chronic low level inflammation, which can, over time, cause DNA damage that leads to cancer Leptin production and functions
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Leptin production: a hormone that is produced by your body’s fat cells Function: regulate fat storage and how many calories you eat and burn It increases energy expenditure Decrease appetite Leptin resistance - when your leptin is high which means you’re fat, but your brain can’t see it. - brain is starved, while your body is obsese Know the principles of bariatric surgeries: Roux-En-Y and gastric banding. Choice of procedure > 90% of bariatric surgeries are laparoscopic Roux- en - Y gastric bypass (51%) - greatest weight loss, followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (44%), and finally, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (5%) Know how Alli/Orlistat works. Pancreatic lipase inhibitor Causes 30% of ingested fat to be lost in feces In a four year DVRPC trial, N = 3304, orlistat group lost 23 lbs vs 13lbs for placebo group in 1st year. After 4 years, orlistat group lost 13lbs vs 7lbs for placebo group
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Side effect: flatus w/ discharge (40%),oily spotting (33%), fecal urgency (30%) , and fatty stool (19%) Prevents triglycerides to be absorbed Chapter 8 The Water-Soluble Vitamins Fortification and enrichment Fortification: process of adding nutrients to foods.The added nutrients are generally not found in the food or are added in much larger amounts, such as fortifying orange juice with calcium Enrichment: adding nutrients back to food that have lost nutrients due to processing, Ex - addition of B vitamins to white rice Bioavailability How much you can absorb and how much the nutrient reach the cell Absorption, storage and excretion of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins Absorption : Vitamins must be absorbed by the body in order to perform their functions, Approximately 40-90% of vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine Fat soluble vitamins require fat in the diet to be absorbed Water soluble vitamins may require transport molecules or specific molecules in the GI tract Some vitamins are absorbed in inactive provitamin or vitamin precursor forms that must be converted into active forms by the body Know general function of vitamin Bs. Vitamin combines with a chemical group to form the functional coenzyme ( active vitamin ) Functional coenzyme combines with the incomplete enzyme to form the active enzyme The active enzyme binds to one or more molecules and accelerates the chemical reaction to form one or more new molecules The new molecules are released, and the enzyme and coenzyme (vitamin ) can be reused or separated Vitamin B1 (thiamin) Function: needed in the process of converting glucose to acetyl CoA Beriberi: thiamin deficiency “I can’t I can’t” Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Electron carrier: NAD Deficiency causes Pellagra: 4D’s : dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death Vitamin B4 (biotin) Binds to avidin (found in raw eggs) inhibits B4
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  • Spring '18
  • Macy Shen

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