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Established during Reconstruction Sharecropping…●Farmers had lost labor force●Whites at first tried to get blacks to sign contracts to work in fields- permanent and unrestricted labor (pssst that’s slavery)●Sharecropping- landlord provided seed and supplies for a share of the harvest (usually ½) ○Gave port southerners opportunity to work a piece of land for themselves○They had to be dependant on the landlords or in debt to local merchants○(1880) 5% of S. Blacks became independent landownersnation’s voters worth on their political party.To what extent was sharecropping an economic and social improvement for African American farm workers in the South? Defend your answer!It was an improvement in that they actually profited from their labors other than being fed and clothed. Otherwise, they were still working in fields, and not in industrially advancing jobs.5.The North During Reconstruction, pp 300-302Key Concepts & Main IdeasNotesAnalysisEfforts by radical and moderate Republicansto reconstruct the defeated South changed the balance ofpowerbetween Congress and the presidency and yielded some short-term successes, reuniting theunion, opening up political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves, and temporarily rearranging the relationships betweenwhite and black peoplein the South. FROM PERIOD 6 CONTENT OUTLINE:Gilded Agepolitics were intimately tied to The North During Reconstruction…●Driven by Industrial Revolution●N focused on railrds, steel, labor probs, and money●S struggles to reorganize labor system Rise of the Spoilsman…●During Grant administration, focused more on material interests rather than idealism (like Lincoln) ●(Early 1870s) Republican Party leaders passed from reformers (Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, and Benjamin Wade) to political manipulators (Senators Roscoe Conkling (NY) and James Blaine (Maine))○Patronage- Gave jobs and favors (spoils) to supportersCorruption in Business and Government…●Bosses wanted to get rich- what’s new?●(1869) Wall Street financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk got President's brother in law a scheme to corner the gold market○Treasury department broke the scheme, but they made a ton of money ●Crédit Mobilier affair- ppl gave stock to Congress officials so no government officials would snoop around○348% increasesFYI: The Grant years crossover between Reconstruction Era and its issues… to the Gilded Age and its issues. Some of the objectives for this section aregoing to be emphasized morein the next unit.To what extent was the Panic of 1873 responsible for the end of Reconstruction. Defend your answer!The Panic certainly stopped thebuilding of railroads and brought focus to economics more than politics, a big part of the Reconstruction of
big business and focused nationally on economic issues — tariffs, currency, corporate expansion, and laissez-faire economic policy— that engendered numerous calls for reform.