Overall Salivation lacrimation urination defecation GI pain emesis miosis

Overall salivation lacrimation urination defecation

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Overall: Salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, GI pain, emesis, miosis (contraction of ciliary muscles causing dilation), bronchospasm Benzotropine: Improves tremor Oxybutynin: Decraese bladder spasams Atropine: Mydriasis/ cyloplegia Scopolamine: Decreases motion sickness, which is a GI upset! Bethanechol: induce smooth muscle contractions uninary Methacholine: Used in the bronchoconstriction test Pilocarpine: Contract ciliary muscles for glaucoma Carbachol: releases ICP for glaucoma SE: rapid heart rate, constipation, vomiting, nausea, dry mouth, dilated pupils, problems uninating SE: causes Dry mouth Can’t use for those with asthma, with peptic ulcers, hyperthyroidism B. Examples of cholinergic antagonist: atropine (Areza) and scopolamine (Transderm Scop). B. Understand ganglionic blockade , and whether this is a clinically useful pharmacologic concept. 1. Blocks specifically predominant tone -Blocks alpha which brings the BP up, so your BP will go down a lot 2. Blocks reflexes (reflex tachy/brady) -If the BP is high, the HR will go down to compensate (reflex brady), if the BP is low, the HR will go up to compensate (reflex tachy) -Ganglionic when the BP goes up and down the HR is going to stay the same because the ganglionic blocker blocks all HR Ganglionic blockers are used less frequently now because we have antihypertensive which have fewer side effects These were the first effective hypertensive drugs They are still used in some emergency situations such as aortic dissection or autonomic dysreflexia SE: orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, dry-mouth, urine retention, digestive problems, failure of erection/ejaculation Nicotinic receptors mostly (Nn autonomic junctions, Nm muscle junctions) Adrenergic Agonists A. Understand the difference between the direct acting adrenergic agonists and an indirect acting adrenergic agonist. Adrenergic Agnoists/ Sympathomimics/ mimic NE or epi Direct acting Agonists: Directly activate Adrenergic receptors
B.Classify the following agonists in terms of the adrenergic receptors they activate and the responses they cause as a result of direct receptor activation: 1. EPINEPHrine (EpiPen) $$$ A& B receptors (Adrenergics) Increases heart rate and contraction Vasoconstriction Bronchospasam 2. Norepinephrine A, but both A&B at high dose Vasoconstriction -Kidneys do not get blood to them! -Not useful in asthma/ anaphylaxis due to this Increased BP, which is accompanied by a reflex bradycardia 3. DOPamine B1, but A&B at high dose, along with D1&D2 at peripheral sites Acts on the heart Positive inotrope and chronotropic Increases blood flow to Kidneys 4. Phenylephrine $ A1 Vasoconstrictor Increases BP Decongestant used to make Methamphetamine 5.

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