Primary literature - full papers • A complete description of current research findings • Full publication with all the recipes and details - notes • A short description of current research findings that are considered less urgent/important • Short full papers - commutations • A short description of important and/ or urgent current research findings • Like the paper published by Watson&Crick • Doesn’t take long to reviewed in the peer-review process
Video 4a Peer review (detail of process) 1. Research conducted by researcher 2. Sublimed to the editor 3. Contend with one or more referees (usually 2,3 or 4) - respond in a few days, usually takes around a moth 4. Sent back to Editor - Analyze referee’s responses 5. Sent back to researcher - rebuttal or correction must be made 6. Sent back to Editor - decision may be made by editor - or it may be sent back to Referee on last time 7. Final decision made - not a good idea for a researcher to submit same paper to several journals (referees may figure it out and it’s not a good sign for the researcher) - Referee and researcher do to know/ communicate with each other Video 4b Names on publications - In geology, name goes first is the primary author (also in medicine) - In chemistry, last author is the main author - An asterisk is applied to the senior author • All in all, there is no simple formula for the names of authors for the di ff erent scientific disciplines • Any order and( nearly any number) of author are possible Video 5 -the vast majority of scientific papers that are published are honest e ff orts report the facts Papers in food science - largely believed that skipping breakfast will cause you to gain weight - turns out skipping will not cause you to gain weight - Calories counting - calories counting cannot be standardized - media can distort the actual results via headlines Video 6 Method reproducibility- Results reproducibility- Robustness and generalization
Scientific misconduct - making a mistake vs intent to deceive - 0.3-4.9% scientist admit to misconduct - 5.2 -33.3% witnessed a colleague commit misconduct - Most scientific journals have not retracted papers - The reason behind half of the retraction is errors and lack of reproducibility - USA and China have the most retractions…and the most publications - 4 out of 10000 papers are retracted -1.8-1.9 million scientific research papers are published per year Video 7 Studies - Observational (epidemiological)studies : studies where the assignment of subject is not controlled by the investigator • Case control studies: compare ppl with a specific condition(case) to other ppl who are otherwise similar except for that condition (control) - Retrospective studies: to go back (revisit the past) • Cohort study: study of a group of ppl over a long period of time to determine which factors might be associated with the appearance of a specific condition - prospective study: to go ahead (present/future) , it’s stronger in term of validity - e.g, EPIC (European perspective investigation into Cancer) STUDY: involve 520000 ppl in
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- Spring '11
- Nutrition, researcher, Vitamin