E correct answer jefferson hated the excise tax which

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e. Correct answer. Jefferson hated the excise tax, which he felt placed an undue burden on his agrarian constituents, and early in his presidency, he urged Congress to repeal it. Question 4 a. Correct answer. Adams named John Marshall, not William Marbury, as one of his eleventh-hour appointments to the Supreme Court. Marbury was a justice of the peace for Washington D.C. b. Passed by the Federalist Congress as one of its last important acts, this measure created 16 new federal judges. c. Because judicial appointments were lifetime posts, Jefferson and other Republicans saw this as the ousted Federalists’ way to attach themselves to one of the three branches of government for generations to come. d. The Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act in 1802, eliminating the 16 appointments that had been made under the act. e. The judges that Adams’ appointed were dubbed the midnight judges because it was his final act on his last day in office. He signed their appointments not at midnight but at 9:00 p.m. Question 5 a. Marbury stressed that the Constitution was a higher authority than all other laws. b. Correct answer. This case ultimately vested in the Supreme Court the last word in interpreting the constitutionality of laws and measures. c. The question of which governmental authority had the power to determine the validity of federal laws had long been controversial. Jefferson and others had tried in measures such as the Kentucky resolutions to vest that power in the states; but the Marbury case put it definitively, and for all time, in the hands of the Supreme Court. d. This case reached the court in 1803; the Judiciary Act of 1801 had been overturned the year before. e. The case had nothing to do with chartering the Bank of the United States. Instead, it was Marbury’s effort to hold onto his commission when the Judiciary Act was repealed and he was told his judgeship was being withdrawn. Question 6 a. While many accused Jefferson of reducing the military to just 2500 men out of frugality, his real motive was not financial but moral.
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b. It was not military per se that Jefferson distrusted; rather, he and his Republican colleagues felt that large standing armies could lead to dictatorship (though they worried less about navies). c. Jefferson’s reduction of the military was not about money or budget issues; for him, minimizing the military was a higher calling that stressed man’s potential to solve his problems without weapons. d. Jefferson felt that by assembling a navy, the U.S. could get dragged into costly, unnecessary, and potentially corrupting wars started and fought by other countries. e. Correct answer. Jefferson hoped to differentiate the U.S. from the endless, bloody conflicts that had been the mark of Europe. In doing so, he believed his nation could set an example for the rest of the world that peaceful negotiation could accomplish all goals.
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