Defensive: arguing with the speaker without fully listening to his/her side of the story Selective: focusing on only bits of info and disregarding other part of the message Insensitive: listening to the words and not the emotion Self-Absorbed: hear only the information that they find useful for achieving their own specific goals Pseudo: pretending to listen by nodding head frequently Small Group Communication Effects of Groups Social loafing: expending less effort in a group either because you think someone else will do the work Social facilitation: spurring each other on and continually adding on to people ideas or opinions Group Size Large Group: a few tend to dominate, usually more time is needed to reach a decision because there is more potential for differing opinions, subgroups tend to form Small Group: productivity increases There is a negative linear relationship because as the # of people in group increases, the productivity decreases Some researchers say the optimal group size is 5-7 people Group Cohesiveness ( How closely connected, mutually liked the members of the group are ) As cohesiveness increases… 1. Communication/participation increases 2. Satisfaction increases 3. Productivity increase & decreases (curvilinear relationship, very low cohesiveness = low productivity, middle cohesiveness = very high productivity, very high cohesiveness = low productivity) Group Leadership
Factors that DO NOT work Effective Leadership Having the “right” traits (intelligence, attractiveness) Ability to know the group’s needs and talents “ Emerging” as a leader - you will never know who will be the leader, will a leader even emerge? Ability to adapt styles to fit those needs of other in your group Finding one best leadership style Technology Netiquette: brevity valued (concise and exact use of words), sales and spam disfavored, acronyms and shortcuts are common, each group has its unique norms Anonymity: you don’t always know who is behind certain posts online Community: flaming (personal attacks), trolling (purposefully trying to get people mad), unique group roles emerge (i.e. those who have status in a group are more likely to be listened to when they make a post) 2 Models of Group Development Tuckman’s Model Groups develop in a linear fashion 1. Forming : nervous, unsure of what to do at first, figure out who will be in charge and what the goals are 2. Storming : experiencing conflict, division may occur in group 3. Norming : members move beyond their conflicts and norms emerge, leader finally emerges, goals solidified 4. Performing : high levels of interdependence, members combine skills and work together 5. Adjourning : reflect on accomplishments and failures, decides whether or not to take on another project Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Model Groups experience a period of inertia or inactivity until they become aware of time, pressure, and looming deadlines, which then compel group members to take action Suggests that groups tend to procrastinate
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- Fall '07
- Intercultural Communication