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rally British support in various cities (1893-’94), stirs up Northern whites to feel embarrassed, spoke against argument that blacks had no civilization-people called her “Joan of Arc”%6.Black men described her ideas as problematic, she called them cowardsWilliam Monroe Trotter (1862-1934)%6.Fierce opponent of Booker T., called him a “Pope”W.E.B. Du Bois%6.Niagara Movement-blacks would no longer stand disenfranchisement and social inequality-1905 in Niagara Falls, Canada, 8 people showed up,%6.Booker T. did not want this movement to be covered%6.Du Bois stressed that the movement was only for people who wanted to stand upFirst meeting held Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, 1906Eric’s SectionProtest or Accommodation in the Age of Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington: “The Atlanta Exposition Address” (1895/Pub. 1901)%6.“Ignorant and inexperienced it is not strange that in the first years of our new life we began at the top instead of the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the legislature was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or
stump speaking had more attraction than starting a dairy farm or truck garden” %6.Washington felt that blacks would only reach equality from the bottom up—that is to say that by focusing on industrial skill they would earn the respect of whites and become economically viable enough to earn rights rather than having them given to free blacks right away %6.Key phrase: “Cast down your bucket where you are” %6.Washington wanted blacks to foster friendly relationships with the white people around them (mainly in the south) and he wanted white people to hire blacks as workers so that they could have mutually beneficial relationships %6.Washington had a real focus on blacks attempting to gain material prosperity before they focused on civil rights %6.Take home point: In the Du Bois vs Washington debate on structure vs agency, Washington is VERY strongly agency. He believes that only through black people working up in society from the bottom will they be seen as equal to whites in society. Bishop Henry McNeal Turner: “Critique of ‘The Atlanta Exposition’” (1895)%6.Points out that Washington’s address did not mention lynchings in any way (which was obviously a pertinent issue to black leaders) %6.“We will have to live a long time to undo the wrongs he has done our race” %6.Criticizes Washington for downplaying issues of civil inequalities %6.Asserts that everything else follows civil rights and that Washington literally damages that effort by downplaying it W.E.B. Du Bois: The Souls of Black Folk, full book (1903)%6.Double-consciousness “sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others”… blacks have no true self consciousness in America but only see themselves through the eyes of the world that doesn’t see them favorably %6.“This sense of looking of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by
the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness,--an American, Negro;