batteries with a driving range of 80100 miles on a single charge a 170

Batteries with a driving range of 80100 miles on a

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batteries with a driving range of 80–100 miles on a single charge, a 170-horsepower electric motor, and a base price of $41,350; customers could also get the BMW i3 with a range extender package (base price of $45,200) that included a 34-horsepower motor used only to maintain the charge of the of the lithium-ion battery at an approximate 5 percent charge and extend the EXHIBIT 10Sales of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2013–2015Best-Selling Models201320142015Tesla Model S17,65017,30025,202Nissan LEAF22,61030,20017,269Chevrolet Volt23,09418,80515,393BMW i36,09211,024Ford Fusion Energi6,08911,5509,750Ford C-Max Energi7,1548,4337,591Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid12,08813,2644,191Fiat 500e2,3105,1326,194All Others4,26012,24319,532US Total95,642123,049116,099WorldwideNot available320,713550,297Source:Inside EVs, “Monthly Plug-in Sales Scorecard,”  (accessed May 19, 2015, and March 3, 2016).
CASE 16 Tesla Motors in 2016: Will Its Strategy Be Defeated by Low Gasoline Prices C-223Hydrogen Fuel Cells: An Alternative to Electric Batteries Many of the world’s major automotive manufac-turers, while actively working on next-generation battery-powered electric vehicles, were nonetheless hedging their bets by also pursuing the develop-ment of hydrogen fuel cells as an alternative means of powering future vehicles. Toyota was considered the leader in developing hydrogen fuel cells and, in 2015, was sharing some of its fuel cell technology patents for free with other automotive companies in an effort to spur whether there was merit in install-ing fuel cells and building out a hydrogen charging network. Audi, Honda, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz, and Hyundai had recently introduced first-generation models powered by hydrogen fuel cells.32Hydrogen fuel cells could be refueled with hydro-gen in three to five minutes. California and several states in the northeastern United States already had a number of hydrogen refueling stations. Existing gaso-line stations could add hydrogen refueling capability at a cost of about $1.5 million. A full tank of hydrogen provided vehicles with a driving range of about 310 miles. While battery-powered vehicles were currently cheaper than fuel-cell-powered vehicles, experts expected that cheaper materials, more efficient fuel cells, and scale economies would in upcoming years enable producers of fuel cell vehicles to match the prices of battery-powered electric vehicles.range, media reports indicated that Mercedes, BMW, Porsche, and Audi were working on pro-ducing fully electric vehicles with a 300+ mile driving range on a single charge by 2018.In late 2015, both Cadillac and Audi intro-duced new plug-in hybrid luxury sedans (the Cadillac CT6 and the Audi A6L eTron) with an electric-only range of just over 60 miles on a sin-gle charge. Initially, both models were being pro-duced and sold only in China. However, Cadillac was expected to begin selling the hybrid plug-in version of the CT6 in North America and else-where in late 2016 or early 2017.

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