Li and renjen are virtues that are important in

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Li and Ren/Jen are virtues that are important in Confucianism; Confucius discusses them in the 6 th century BCE text, the Analects. English translations for “ren” are words such as love, goodness, benevolence, and human-heartedness. A person who demonstrates proper “ren” does not act for public recognition but rather because it is morally correct. Within the concept of “ren” lies the Confucian value of the five relationships that are important in society. The person who should best emulate ren should be the ruler. Li is defined as the rites honoring ancestors and deities. When participating in “li” one should keep ren in mind so as to avoid empty gestures on worship. Li and Ren/Jen are important because they are powerful tools of domestication and personalization in Chinese society; you can be taught the outward devotional rites of li but, in order to do them right, you must internalize the devotion through ren/jen. Wei and Wu Wei: “not doing” in the sense of taking no action contrary to the natural flow. This daoist ideal was expressed in the Dao de jing, a text written down by Laozi in about the 6th century BCE though earlier versions may have existed throughout China. Laozi teaches that the world is naturally in harmony, so by only engaging in effortless action, we do not disrupt the flow of things and the world will come to balance. Wu Wei is critical to the classic daoist, who seeks to find the still center and take a humble, quiet approach to life. It is important because it allowed for a counter and more interior spirituality to the Confucianism
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that sought to establish social order through strict codes of conduct. Because of its rejection of competition in the “rat race” and advocacy of harmonious living, the concept of wu-wei has enabled Daoism to spread across the globe. Ch’i: is a belief that long existed in China. Ch’i is a manifestation of an impersonal self- generating physical-spiritual substance, or the “stuff” that composes everything that  exists.  Ch’i has two aspects: the yin (dark, receptive, ‘female’ aspect) and the yang  (bright, assertive ‘male’ aspect).  The concept of ch’i is the foundation for Daoism and  Confucianism, and it explains the concept of finding a middle way of discretion and  moderation in both religions. Kabbalah-A Jewish mystical tradition of esoteric teachings developed in the Middle  Ages. The most important book is the Zohar, “Way of Splendor,” it is an offering of  stories, explanations of the esoteric levels of the Torah, and descriptions of visionary  practice and experiences. The Zohar depicts the world we perceive with our sense as but  a lower reflection of a splendid higher world. The most influential leader in Kabbalah,  was Isaac Luria. Creation is explained as the being of the divine light into ten special  vessels, some of which were shattered by the force. Humans have a responsibility to help 
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