Gene flow – the overall effect of gene flow is to increase the variation within populations, but to decrease it between populations, gene flow quickly eliminates or swamps the effects of genetic drift. Genetic drift – In small population’s genetic drift may cause random changes or fluctuations in gene frequencies. Variations represented by a founding population creates a founder effect (reduced gene pool because small sample size). These can also be caused by a bottleneck event. Natural selection – primarily a negative force that acts on variation. All remaining variation is subject to competitions measured by differential reproductive success, or fitness.
Mutation - when DNA is being duplicated, sometimes mistakes are made, most are either harmful or neutral, but occasionally can be good. Are very rare per location, but is not uncommon for an individual to have some. And it is the ultimate source of all new genetic variation Recombination – Aka crossing-over, why offspring of the same parents are different. Sisters or brothers may be similar but are different to an extent although they come from the same 2 people. Convergent evolution – It refers to like wings appear in birds and bats and insects so it came from different ways to these species Divergent evolution – Darwin’s species so it developed within the same sub species that lead to new species because they were isolated. Primates Paleocene- Ancestors are believed to have evolved from arboreal niche. Living in trees. Eocene – 55-24 million years ago first true primates were identified. Prosimians evolved at a separate lineage Examples Lemurs they are only found in Madagascar. Oligocene – 34-23 million years ago. At this time we see a split within old world monkeys and apes. Miocene – Chimps and bonobos all came out of the same ancestor Gorillas split off Right here Pliocene – end of the Miocene and beginning of the Pleistocene Pleistocene- one before Holocene where the Neanderthals were extinct Holocene- current, where we are right now Knuckle walking- Apes walking on knuckles and not walking on 2 feet yet Bipedalism- walk on two feet. Quadrupedalism – walk on 4 feet Sexual dimorphism – Two sexes of the same species have different characteristics. Like size. sex organs will always be different but this does not apply here. strictly talking about size, markings, and sometimes even behavior. Nocturnal – Active at night 3D stereoscopic vision – can see 3 dimensional Symbiotic relationships – two different organisms need each other to live. There are four main types of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, parasitism and competition.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 4 pages?