ch13

Psychology in Action

This preview shows page 3 - 6 out of 30 pages.

462) 13.15 How do psychologists measure personality? (p. 463) 13.16 Describe the key advantages and disadvantages of personality measurement. (p. 466) 13.17 List the three major fallacies associated with pseudo-personality tests. (p. 468) Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 13                                         Page   145
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

C hapter S ummary/ L ecture O rganizer Personality is defined as an individual's relatively stable patterns of thoughts, emotions, and actions. Psychologists describe and explain personality differences according to different theoretical orientations. I. TRAIT THEORIES - Trait theorists believe personality consists of relatively stable and consistent characteristics. A. Early Trait Theorists - The focus of early theorists was identifying the actual traits people possess and the degree to which they pervade the overall personality. Allport focuses on arranging the most important traits at the top of a hierarchy and the least important at the bottom. Cattell reduced the number of traits with a statistical technique called factor analysis. Eysenck believes personality can be described along three dimensions: introversion extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. B. The Five-Factor Model - Proponents of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) explain personality in terms of a “Big Five” model - openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. C . Evaluating Trait Theories – Critics point out three weaknesses: lack of explanation, the stability of these traits, and the effects of the situation on personality. Psychology at Work: Personality and Your Career – John Holland’s Self-Directed Search questionnaire is discussed as a tool in helping finding a good match between our personality and career choice. Research Highlight: Do Nonhuman Animals Have Personality? – Comparative psychologists like Roger Fouts make a case for the proposition that chimpanzees hare many characteristics in common with humans including personality. Three dimensions that have cross-species generality include extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. II. PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES A. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory - The psychoanalytic approach to personality was founded by Freud. Freud emphasized the power of the unconscious and believed that the mind (or psyche) functioned on three levels, the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. In Freud's theory, personality has three distinct parts, the id, ego, and superego. The ego struggles to meet the demands of the id and superego, and when these demands are in conflict the ego may resort to defense mechanisms to relieve the resultant anxiety. According to Freud, all human beings pass through five psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. How the conflicts at Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 13                                         Page   146
Image of page 4
each of these stages are resolved is important to personality development. Anxieties arising from
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 6
You've reached the end of this preview.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern