Child understands why theyre being ounished, how to fix what they did wrong, etc. Gender typing and gender identity: o Gender sterotype beliefs: By 2, children label themselves & others in terms of their sec Beliefs very rigid in early childhood: 3-4 years Gender typing: process of developing gender roles or gender- linked preferences and behaviors valued by society Gender identity: image of one’s self as relatively masculine or feminine Androgomy: high on both masculine and feminine personality traits: competitive, self-sufficient, affectionate, sensatie Females are more so = gender flexibility (more acceptance) o 3 theories of gender identity: social learning: behavior (modeling and reinforcement) – gender identity cognitive development: self perceptions (gender constancy) guide behavior gender constancy: cognitive understanding that sex is biologically based and perment. Gender schema: combines social learning and cognitive- devlopmental theories o Gender typing-influence: Genetic: evolutionary adaptivness, hormones Environmental: Social/cultural contect (media, values) Family (differential reinforcement and treatment) o Direct verbal comments and expectations o Treat and supervise children differently o Channeling: differential encouragement of toys, activities, skills, and chores Boys: more gender type, fathers more insistent Non-traditional dad (he is primary) =less strict gender roles
o Modeling, teachers (male v female student interaction) o Peers (reinforce behaviors) Chapters 11& 12: Middle Childhood The obesity epidemic: o Obesity causes more deaths than malnutrition does Rates have stablilized in the US since 2000, but 1/5 of children are overweight & 18% obese Prevelance of it for children between 6-11 has gone up more than 300% Obesity affects all o Causes: overweight parents, (extremes: restrict or too much) low SES, poor eating habits, low physical activity, fast food and supersizing, tv (av spends 3-4 hours watching tv, positive correlation btw 2) 25% of obesity may be attributable to increases in TV viewing o more overweight if older or poorer o consequences: teasing, lonliness, more likely to be obese as an adult, liver, gallbladder disorders, sleep, digestive disorders, early death, feel ugly, depression, em otional issues, reduced life chances o Mechanisms: Tv displaces physical activity Increased consumption of food while wathing TV Advertising encourages poor food choices (less in Dennmark) Reduction in resting metabolism Brain Maturation o Interconnected brain by age 7/8 from increasing maturation o Reaction time: increasing mylenization reduces reaction time from birth to around age 16 o Selective attention: ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others: improves around age 7 (multitasking) o Automatization: some skills become routine: reading, writing name
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