Mental processes but humans among different cultures

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mental processes but humans among different cultures differ in attaining higher mental processes which depend on cultural interaction i.e. socialization Interpersonal interaction becomes internalized and shapes thinking e.g. the meaning behind culturally accepted symbols and tools Special role of tools and signs ( cultural tools ) Tools and signs equip the child with the means to interpret further meaning e.g. a car, transportation, roads, commuting, time; these influence our perception of reality Intra- to Inter- mental Intermental = play between two minds, usually caregiver and child, that results in meaning built ( intramental ) inside the child’s mind e.g. associating pointing with a meaning
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Study Guide Psych 19 Chapters 2 and 3 Page 12 of 16 Zone of Proximal Development Distance between developmental levels separated by the tasks one can do independently and those that require help Formed by the coaching of a more knowledgeable person (scaffolding) Learning within the zone aids cognitive development, with eventual internalization The ZPD shifts over time with new skills being done independently Scaffolding More knowledgeable peer or mentor uses knowledge and capabilities to enable less adept one (child) to learn by cooperating and internalizing new skills Implications Posits that learning is culturally related and that mental structures are shaped by interactions Learning in different cultures can affect cognitive development People have the ability to improve their own development by seeking new people and engaging in mentorship 3c Compare and contrast Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development What is the focus on (individual in environment or understanding social context) What is the unit of analysis? Where does learning occur? Learning occurs within oneself and in a sociocultural context: initiates by attaining new information and needing to find equilibrium with current schemes (or building new schemes) but learning also requires a social context wherein a more knowledgeable mentor creates a learning scaffold that the learner engages via interpersonal interaction within the ZPD 4a. Learning Theories: Behaviorism Assumes: 1. Cognitive processes are immeasurable and should be excluded from theories on learning 2. Learning is the result from an organism becoming accustomed to an environment, getting conditioned 3. Organisms have a blank slate; they are not predisposed to behave in certain ways until they attain experiences in an environment Classical Conditioning: Pavlov How is learning defined? Learning is done by association: repeatedly experiencing a
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Study Guide Psych 19 Chapters 2 and 3 Page 13 of 16 phenomenon and forming behaviors around it Neutral and unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that the organism has not encountered before or has not conditioned a behavioral response Conditioned and unconditioned response
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