Projected risks of flooding see slide on moodle

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Projected Risks of Flooding: (see slide on moodle) Rising sea level may threaten low-lying islands and coastal areas, including several major populations centres. Climate Feedbacks: Mechanisms whereby a small amount of warming gets amplified (positive feedbacks). Negative feedbacks are a reduction. Loss of sea ice: Behaviour of CO 2 in the water. It dissolves readily in cold salty water Formation of sea ice expels salt, creating such water which sinks, locking carbon dioxide in the oceans’ depths Warming implies less sea ice, so less carbon dioxide absorption and this even more warming! Ice and decreasing albedo: -Ice has a high albedo -Loss of ice cover means a lower planetary albedo, and so even more warming. Increased biological activity in tundra: -More decomposition activity in soil due to warming means increased production of
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methane and carbon dioxide -More warming again Water vapour: -Higher temperature means more rapid evaporation of water into the atmosphere -More warming due to more water vapour Are there any negative feedbacks ? CO 2 Fertilization: Higher temperature promotes faster growth of vegetation More carbon dioxide may be sequestered in biosphere Greenhouse has reduction leads to cooling Water Vapour: More moisture in the air causes more cloud cover Clouds have a high albedo Increased planetary albedo causes cooling Feedback mechanisms make modeling challenging. Relative strengths are critical and difficult to estimate. -Clouds are poorly understood and not simulated directly in GCMs –overall effect in a grid cell is approximated -The precise role played by clouds and water vapour remains unclear—positive or negative feedback? Conclusions: Models Mathematical models are excellent tools to help us understand the key processes and variables in the climate system.
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