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of metonymical extension. The shape and color are irrelevant stimulus features which frequently accompany the written word “stop.”Lesson 27: Extension of the Verbal MandThe form of the mand, however, is not determined by a prior stimulus. Therefore, there are no relevant stimulus features. Whether or not those environmental events which we call establishing operations have features that can be called either relevant or irrelevant is a complex matter and is beyond the scope of this introductory tutorial. Although the form of the response is not controlled by a prior stimulus, other stimuli, including audience variables, may determine whether or not the specific response form is emitted.Defining Features The response is verbalThe form of the response is controlled by an establishing operationIrrelevant Features
Lesson 28: Extensions of Verbal Behavior — Private StimuliMost stimuli are capable of affecting several different people in the same way. This fact allows for the verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal responses when it is training one of its members. If the trainer can also make contact with the stimulus at the same time that the learner does, then the trainer can decide whether or not the learner’s response is appropriate to the stimuli present.Private stimuli. Only the individual is in contact with the stimuli arising from some event like a toothache. The trainer can only assume or infer that the appropriate stimuli are present when someone says “toothache.”Private StimulusDefining Features Is a physical energy changeIs capable of affecting a sense organAffects only one individual; other individuals are not affectedIrrelevant Features Type of energy changeFunction of the stimulus (e.g., reinforcing, discriminative, punishing)ReceptorType of StimulusPhotoreceptorLightPhonoreceptorSoundsChemoreceptors (gustatory and olfactory)