Liberalism and socialism are widely regarded as two of the most influential

Liberalism and socialism are widely regarded as two

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4. Liberalism and socialism are widely regarded as two of the most influential ideologiesto arise in the 19thcentury. What were their doctrines and goals? How did they differ? Whom did they appeal to? What sorts of societies and states did they prefer?
5. Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin all came to power in the interwar years. How did the conditions and crises of this period shape their attitudes and agendas? How, in turn, did these leaders shape the character and course of European affairs in this period? Mussolini-ItalyoBritain and France did not give Italy the land they promised, making Italy fall on debtoItalians believed that the Treaty of Versailles had treated them poorly.oMussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italy’s problemsPromised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman EmpireNationalism strong: nation over individualoControlled all the multi-medias including radio, press, newspaper and education to force people to think that fascism was the right and the best doctrine.oSigned a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel.Hitler-GermanyoParis peace treaties were unfair and only punished Germany, making them feel resentment and shameoHitler devastated when Germany lost WW1 and blamed it on Jews and Communists (conspiracy)oHelped form the Nazi party and tried to overthrow governmentWas arrested and wrote Mein Kampf- Nazi ideologyBecame the biggest power in Germany and allowed Hitler to appoint himself as dictator- The Third ReichoInstalled the SStook over law enforcement in Germany and implemented the ‘Final Solution’oInstalled the Gestaposecret Police who also administered concentration campsoNazi Youthyoung boys who were educated in anti-Semitism and indoctrinated into loving Hitler. Served in his militaryoTalked about brining glory back to Germany by improving the economy and expandingoBelief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”oAll Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in EuropeStalin-USSRoCountry faced heavy military losses in WWI; popular unrest calling for changesoAs leading member of the communist party, Stalin seized power after Lenin’s death (Lenin did not want it)Pretended to be close to Lenin to gain popular supportoMore interested in power than ideology
Was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communismoChanges agricultural sector into heavy industry in order to support innovations in waro

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