The directory relied on the army and military force

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The Directory relied on the army and military force to carry out these repressive acts at the same time it supported the army and Napoleon in an aggressive war of expansion in Europe and Egypt. Having relied on the armyso much, the Directory was in the end overthrown by Napoleon and military might.Another interpretation of the Revolution divides the period of 1789-1799 into stages or phases:A liberal, constitutional phase of 1789-1792A radical, republican phase that led to authoritarian terror of the Committee of Public Safety August 10 1792 to 9 Thermidor 1794Thermidor: A reactionary phase in response to the excesses of radical republicanism (universal male franchise) and of Terror.The Napoleonic coup d’etat, the ending of the Revolution by military coup andthe restoration of “order” and domestic peace through an authoritarian regime. Outcomes of the French Revolution, 1789-1799(1815)1. Representative government vs. authoritarianism (the Terror, Napoleon): two different new models of government2. Stronger, further centralized state with a larger, more effective and more intrusive administration.
3. Abolition of special fiscal privileges, seigneurial dues owed by peasants to lords, internal tariffs, and the establishment of uniform tax system based in principle on one’s income.4. Creation and extension of new civil rights:a. equality before the lawb. careers open to talentc. participation in elections or certain government positions based on property qualifications5. Socio-economic changesa. single commercial codeb. abolition of guilds, i.e., workers right to organize in “unions”c. business becomes an honorable professiond. (wealthier) peasants acquire land and more peasants become independent proprietorse. increase in the size and influence of the bourgeoisie, through the acquisition ofchurch lands, greater wealth, and offices as political representatives and government officials6. Changes in ideas and political culture:a. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ; popular sovereignty : sovereignty rested with the “people” not in the king, or any narrower group such as the aristocracy; democratic republicanismb. Nationalism -c. decline in religiosity, in the influence and authority of the church -d. formation of a revolutionary tradition centered on the belief that revolution was a means for bringing progressive change and further extension of popular participation and popular sovereignty.Notes from the Text Book
Chapter 16 "Science" entails all of the following EXCEPT:An adoption of a secular rather than religious worldview.Although logic and geometry had played a role in the medieval worldview, _____ would assume a much more central role in the "New Science."MathematicsThe _____ argued that nature was the way in which God revealed himself to humanity.

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