Ideal type : A construct or model for evaluating specific cases. Verstehen : The German word for “understanding” or “insight”; used by Max Weber to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions. The Functionalist Perspective: Sociologists make use of five major perspectives, all of which offer unique insights into the same issues. 1. Functionalist perspective: emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society is structured to maintain its stability. 2. Conflict perspective: assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources. 3. Interactionist perspective: generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. 4. Feminist view: which is often allied with the conflict perspective, sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization 5. Queer theory: study of society from the perspective of a broad spectrum of sexual identities. Manifest functions: open stated and conscious functions Latent functions : unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. Dysfunction: refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability. Dramaturgical approach : people are seen as theatrical performers/compares everyday life to the setting of the theater on stage. Taking Sociology with you:
Applied sociology : use of the discipline of sociology w/h specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations. Clinical sociology : alters social relationships or restructuring social institutions Basic sociology : sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena Globalization : the world wide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas Social inequality : a condition in which, members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige or power.
Chapter 2: Sociological Research: Scientific method : systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. 5 steps of the Scientific Method: 1. Defining the problem 2. Reviewing the literature 3. Formulating a hypothesis 4. Selecting the research design and then collecting and analyzing data 5. Developing the conclusion Operational definition : explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept. Hypothesis: speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors. Known as variables. Variable : measurable trait or characteristic that is subjective to change under different conditions.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 22 pages?