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values, needs, hopes, and aspirations4.Consultation – increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding howyou will accomplish your plan5.Exchange – rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request6.Personal appeals – asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty7.Ingratiation – using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request8.Pressure – using warnings, repeated demands, and threats9.Coalitions – enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree-Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consolation tend to be the most effective, especially when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process.-Pressure tends to backfire and is typically the least effective -Increase chances of success by using two or more tactics together or sequentially, as long as they are compatible.-Using both ingratiation and legitimacy can lessen negative reactions to your appearing to dictate outcomes, but only when the audience does not really care about the outcome of a decision process or the policy is routine-Effectiveness of some influence tactics depends on the direction of influence-Rational persuasion is the only tactic effective across organizational levels.-Inspirational appeals work best as a downward only.-Personal appeals and coalitions are most effective as lateral influence.
-Other factors that affect the effectiveness of influence include the sequencing of tactics, a person’s skill in using the tactic, and the organizational culture-More likely to be effective beginning with “softer” tactics than relying on personal power, such as personal and inspirational appeals, rational persuasion, and consultation. If these fail, you can move on to “harder” tactics, such as exchange, coalitions, and pressure, which emphasize formal power and incur greater costs and risks.-A single soft tactic is more effective than a single hard tactic, and combining two soft tactics or a soft tactic and rational persuasion is more effective than any single tactic or combination of hard tactic.-The effectiveness of tactics depends on the audience.-People especially likely to comply with soft power tactics tend to be more reflective and intrinsically motivated; they have high self-esteem and greater desire for control.-Those most likely to comply with hard power tactics are more action-oriented and extrinsically motivated and are more focused on getting along with others than on getting their own way.-Those from individualistic countries tend to see power in personalized terms and as a legitimate means of advancing their personal ends-Those in collectivistic countries see power in social terms and as a legitimate means of helping others.