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Bc leading roman philosopher influenced by the

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Lucretius (96-55 BC) leading Roman philosopher, influenced by the conflict of Marius and Sulla. Appreciates Epicurus. Denounced superstition and religion for fostering psychological distress and advanced a materialistic concept of nature. Mechinal laws, not the gods governed all physical happenings. Soul perishes with the body. Cicero (106-43 BC)- leading Roman statesmen, orator, Latin stylist and a student of Greek philosophy. Wanted to prevent one man rule. Stoic goal of the self-sufficient sage who sought to accord his life with standards of virture inherent to nature. Stoicism most influential philophy in Rome, stresses virtous conduct and performance of duty coincided with Roman ideals, and its doctorine of a natural law that applies to all nations harmonized with the requirements of a world empire. Collapse of the Republic: 2 problems 1) Adjusting city-state institutions to the demands of an empire 2) Overcoming critical social and political problems at home *governors, tax collectors and soldiers exploited the provincials *civil war replaced foreign war -1)class tensions 2)poor leadership 3)power hungry demagogues4) civil war breakdown of social harmony and deterioration of civil patriotism Gracchian Revolution Farms went to waste during fight with Hannibal, soldiers that were farmers couldn’t keep up with lands and many sold to wealthy landowners at low prices. Latifundia: importation of slaves to work on large plantations.<left former farmers without places to work> Tiberius Gracchas (163-133 BC) 133 BC became a tribune. Spokesman for land reform. Reinacted law that barred any Roman from using more than 312 acres of state-owned land obtained in the process of unifying Italy. Landowners thought he was extreme and killed him and 300 of his followers. Gaius Gracchus (153- 121 BC), elected tribune in 123 BC, brother to Tiberius. Reintroduced brother’s idea and allowed the poor to buy grain from the state at less than half of the market place. Also killed by Senate. Rival Generals Marius (157-86 BC) became consul in 107 BC. Filled legions with urban poor (prior had to have a property requirement to be in army). Soldiers were disillusioned with Rome and served for
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pay, loot and land grants. Were loyal to Marius not Rome, and only so long as he fulfilled his promises. set precedent for other generals to create their own armies, which led to civil dissent. Social War(91-88 BC) allowed non Roman Italian citizens to become Roman citizens. Sulla(138-78 BC) battled Marius for control of Rome. Sulla won fist round and captured the capitol, then Marius retook Rome and took out Sulla’s supporters. (5 days and nights of killings) Marius dies after and Sulla subdued Marius’s supporters and instituted a terror that surpassed Marius’s violence. Sulla believed in rule by oligarchy.
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